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History of medicine is
an idea how the medical practice and science developed through the centuries in close relationship with the development of society in order to find the best methods of prevention, diagnostics and treatment of diseases of a human being
The disciplines, which give information to the history of medicine are:
• • • • • • Archeology Paleopathology Paleobotany Paleoanthropology Paleopsychology Findings include manuscripts, books, works of art
.Scientists • Anthropologists: study hominids to compare features with other fossil bones to see if brain size or posture was the same then • Paleontologists: study the characteristics of prehistoric periods • Archaeologists: study the objects left behind by the hominids for ex.
difficult to date the artifacts • Radiocarbon dating: once-living things contain small amounts of radioactive carbon – Study the decay rate of the radio carbon Tools from the Stone Age .Artifacts • Any object that was shaped by human hands • Easy to know the sequence of when they were.
Contents Prehistory Ancient Civilizations Medieval Medicine in the East Renaissance Medicine Industrialisation and Enlightenment Middle Ages The Modern World .
Problems with Studying Prehistoric Medicine •No written Evidence •How can we overcome this problem? • Archaeology and Examination of Artefacts • Compare with existing prehistoric societies – Aboriginal societies .
Archaeology and Artefacts Skeletons not always helpful Excavation Techniques Problems with Archaeology Prehistoric Burial Traditions Nomadic lifestyle Warriors/hunters Killed away from Tribe/group Cave Drawing .
Problems with the evidence • We only have archaeological evidence – problem is it cannot tell us the whole story • We also have cave paintings and other finds • One way that we can find out evidence is to look at people around the world who lived similar lifestyles to prehistoric people until relatively recently .
Timeline .Early Man .
Ago 3. lived until 1.5 million yrs. Homo habilis: person with ability. Homo erectus: person who walks upright. 100-200. Ago 2. Homo sapiens: person who thinks .000 yrs.Scientists divide homo into 3 groups 1.
9 to 3 million years ago) .What’s a Hominid? (3.
• Bipedalism—walking on two legs—first separated hominids from apes. Hominids also have thicker dental enamel and smaller canine teeth than their ape ancestors. a bigger brain isn‘t what tipped the scale. . (Homo sapiens is the only hominid left. And as hominids grew more accustomed to walking on two legs. they lost their arboreal arms.A hominid is • an animal that lies broadly within the human family tree.) What set hominids apart from apes? Contrary to popular belief. long upper limbs and hands suited to tree climbing.
found bones from 17 people – 4.4 million years old – 65 pounds – 4 feet tall . Gen Suwa from Japan found one of the oldest Homind teeth ever found in Ethiopia at a sight called Aramis • After studying with his colleague Tim White. 1992.Hominid teeth found!!! • Dec. 17.
large teeth Eastern & southern Africa Fruit.Australopithecus • • • • ―Southern ape‖ 3 ½ to 5 feet Walked on 2 legs Large faces that jutted out Small brains. fish No evidence of tools. leaves. only twigs and sticks • • • • . and nuts. flat noses.
• Lived during the Paleolithic • Oldest hominids known to have manufactured tools
• Began as food gatherers • Became hunters by developing weapons • Make fire and made clothing from animal skins
Homo erectus .
Homo erectus .
Homo erectus • Became more developed in their skills • Scientists disagree on when people migrated out of Africa • Homo erectus was established in China and Europe by about 400.000 yrs. ago .
Language • By 50.C. grunting and gestures was how people communicated • Language is one of humanity‘s greatest achievement • Allows us to pass down through the generations .000 B.. people had developed speech • Before that.
Neanderthals • Named after the Neander Valley in Germany where their remains were first discovered in A. muscular necks and shoulders • Believe these characteristics helped them adapt to colder climates . 1850s • 5.5 feet tall • Brains slightly larger than ours • Stocky build.D. thick bones.
spear points from flint.Technological skills • Crafted stone knives. and bone tools .
Ways of Life • Lived in small groups of 35-50 people • Nomads • Warm weather: camps along lakes or rivers • Cold weather: in caves or under the overhang of cliffs .
and weapons and covered in flowers .Culture and Beliefs • They cared for sick and aged • May have been 1st to practice medicine – Evidence of wounds completely healed • Had a belief in life after death – Buried dead with food. tools.
000 yrs ago • Within 20.Homo Sapiens Sapiens • Modern humans • Originated in Africa about 50.000 yrs. became the only hominids left on Earth . this group dominated every continent • After hominids and homo erectus became extinct.
Homo sapiens .
The Cro-Magnons • Earliest homo sapiens sapiens • Found mostly in Europe • Taller but less robust than Neanderthals • Improved technology • More sophisticated cultures • Hunting and gathering techniques more effective .
Cro-Magnon Technology • Blades made thinner and sharper • Used bone. antler. and ivory to make tools • Stone ax used to cut down trees to make into canoes • Spear-thrower and bow and arrow – Now could hunt woolly mammoths and bison .
Social Life • Had to cooperate with other unrelated groups of CroMagnons to hunt wild game • Lead to setting up rules and making leaders • Leaders had elaborate burials .
Cave Paintings • Accomplished artistry • Some were educational to teach for ex. how to hunt • Also painted to reach to the spiritual world • They also sculpted .
Homo sapiens sapiens: Cave art .
Humans Populate All the Major Land Masses of the World .
Distribution and design of cave art .
Homo sapiens sapiens: Important archaeological sites .
Ago. Earth experiences 4 periods called the Ice Age • Only middle latitudes were warm enough to support human or plant life • Early human beings adapted by migrating or learning strategies to stay warm .The Ice Ages • B/t 2 million and t10.000 yrs.
2018.Stone Ages .5 MYA . 2 million years ago • MESOLITHIC: Middle Stone Age.150 BCE • NEOLITHIC : 9000 BCE – 4500 BCE .000 BCE to 12.2500 BC • PALEOLITHIC: Old Stone Age.
Paleolithic Period Beginnings of humans to 10.gatherers .000 BCE people were nomads lived in groups of 20 -30 hunter .
Division of Labor men hunting game animals women gathering fruits, berries, and other edibles Developed simple tools: spears & axes made from bone, wood, & stone
• 2,000,000 years ago • artifacts chipped stone and flint, use of wood, clay, and animal parts • tool kit was extensive: knives, axes, scrapers, hammers, awls, needles, spears, harpoons, clubs, blowguns, and bows and arrows, fire • hominids - Homo habilis • nomadic hunters and food gatherers • lasted until the introduction of agriculture • Spirituality and Religion may have begun to develop
Mesolithic Age – Middle Stone Age
• 20-18,000 BC to 12,150 BC • small composite flint tools (microliths and microburins), fishing tackle, stone adzes and wooden objects such as canoes and bows • characterized by the introduction of agriculture
Neolithic Revolution • Shift from hunting & gathering to agriculture • Led to permanent settlements • Establishment of social classes • Eventual rise of civilizations .
Neolithic Revolution Great Discoveries • 10.000 BCE: humans cultivate crops and domesticate animals • Villages continued to divide work between men and women • Women's status declined men took lead in most areas of early societies .
4500 BC first permanent settlements appear domestication of plants (notably wheat). animals (goats and sheep) produced decorated pottery and figurines from clay may indicate they were a war-like people irrigation systems and more advanced burial site use of alien materials like lapis lazuli. indicate a cultural diversity and the development of external trading .NEOLITHIC : New Stone Age 9000 BC .
Neolithic Age-New Technologies .• Calendar to keep track of planting and harvesting • Simple metal tools such as plows • Used animals to pull plows • Metal weapons developed as villages needed to protect their valuable resources.
000 BC • First Modern Humans evolve • Hunter Gatherers • Estimated World Population – 5 million .Prehistory • 150.
Vegetables fruit and berries gathered • Fresh Water • Exercise .Main Features • Nomadic • No Government • Food Supplies – Fresh meat from hunting wild animals.
Lifestyle of prehistoric man • Hunter gathers • Followed the animals that they hunted • Did not farm • Rarely lived beyond 30 years • Did not write things down • Used flint and had a basic understanding of the world • Very religious – blamed spirits for good and bad things .
Prehistoric Medicine • Spiritual treatments • Rational treatments • Surgery .
‘ ‗Clever Men‘ • Some herbal remedies • Broken Bones set in Clay • Open cuts bandaged with bark or animal skin .Prehistoric Medicine • Trephination • Illness caused by evil spirits • Sorcerers. ‗Medicine Men.
such as some Aborigines in Australia. By examining their beliefs and practices we can get an insight into prehistoric life. Other evidence. Cave paintings give clues about what people thought caused some diseases. provide further clues about these beliefs. To confirm their ideas. . such as charms. whose lifestyles have not changed for thousands of years. historians have talked to groups of people.Medical knowledge and beliefs Archaeologists have found some evidence that suggests what the beliefs of prehistoric people were.
Medicine men • Prehistoric men used medicine men to help them to get rid of the evil spirits that thy thought caused disease • Used lucky charms to help • Used chants and magic spells to help people to get better .
The image of "sorcerer" in a cave of Three Brothers .
Practical ideas • Have evidence that they used herbs and spices to treat diseases • Evidence that they may have healed broken bones using casts and splints • Used berries to cure common conditions such as constipation and diarrhoea .
Aboriginal beliefs and treatments Those Aborigines who still follow their traditional culture believe that everyone has their own spirit inside themselves. If a person becomes ill. To get treatment. He puts his patient into a trance by singing and chanting and then massages the sick area which releases the spirit and the patient is cured. Aborigines go to a Medicine Man who knows all about spirits. . or an evil spirit has entered their body. it is because their spirit has left them.
probably to prevent spirits casting spells on them. Many women treat their families with herbal remedies and use recipes handed down over thousands of years. and the Aborigines are no exception.Traditionally. and buried their cut-off nails and hair and their excrement. . All through the history of medicine we find the use of herbal medicine to cure illness and disease. Aborigines also wore charms to keep evil spirits away.
Spirit healing . Drinking the blood of a wild animal killed in the hunt would give hunters special powers or eating special plants known only to the shaman could treat sickness. We also believe that they dispensed the first medicines. It is possible that these treatments would sometimes have a beneficial effect and it is thought that drugs like digitalis and morphine were first discovered in this way.• Spirit healers would perform ceremonies and cast spells to treat the sick.
. Many people still visit faith healers or follow alternative therapies that claim to tap into invisible forces of nature.Alternative therapies • Western medicine is based on scientific observation and experimentation. Shamen still play an important part in certain Native American and African cultures. We no longer live in the mystical spirit world of the ancients but that does not mean that beliefs no longer play a part in healing. Indeed.
Taino people of the period 1400500 years B.P .
Archaeological evidence suggests that people did survive trepanning. which involved cutting a hole in the skull.Surgery There was very limited use of surgery in prehistoric times. although we don't know whether it had any positive effects. possibly to release evil spirits which were causing illness. This was trepanning or trephining. What do you think were the dangers of trepanning? . One amazing operation did take place.
Trepanning • PH man performed this operation without anaesthetic – removed a piece of the skull to relieve pressure on the brain • We know that people survived because we have found skulls where the bone has started to grow back • Evidence of early knowledge of surgical techniques .
• Also did surgery to remove cysts and moles .• Yet this reason was done for supernatural as opposed to natural reasons • They did in order to create a hole through which an evil spirit (which they thought caused the disease) could escape.
and the person who has lost owing to ritual cranial trepanation . survived operation of cranial trepanation (at the left).Skulls of primitive people (neoantrop).
who were believed to project an alien spirit. • a worm into the body of the unsuspecting patient.Most diseases were attributed to the influence : • of malevolent demons. • a stone. .
Members of primitive society do not distinguish between medicine. . magic and religion.
mythology. hymns. sacred dances.All elements of primitive medicine• • • • • • religion. prayers. . magic.
law codes.Characteristics of Civilizations • Cities • Centralized government. organized religion • System of writing • Specialized jobs – Division of Labor • Social Class Structure • Advanced Technology .
How did they become civilizations? • Neolithic Revolution – domestication of plants & animals • Organized Farming & village life • Food Surplus was created led to specialization of labor • Growth in population • Creation of complex socieites requiring complex institutions which governed large scale projects like irrigation .
Population Growth & Development of Civilizations • Iron Age = new farms tools = food surplus • Farming and Pastoral Nomads replaced huntergatherers • Domesticated animals = beasts of burden = food surplus • Increased. healthier population living closer together in new urban areas • Increased immunities based on close proximity & better health .
uniform coinage. uniform weights & measurements (Lydian's & Persians) .Population Growth & Development of Civilizations • Cultural connections increased through new trade routes • Developments of empires • Development of Writing systems to record taxes to pay for expanded governments • Development of great road building projects to encourage trade.
The Egyptians • 6000 BC to 30BC • Country ruled by King or Pharaoh • Farming developed on banks of the Nile • Developed Writing – Hieroglyphics and Papyrus • Worshiped a group of Gods .
Early River Civilizations: EGYPT 3000BCE • Egyptian Science and Technology 1. Preserving the human body after death through mummification 3. Irrigation – water from Nile River (god) to grow wheat & other foods 2. Physicians diagnose illness & perform brain & body surgery .
Egyptian Science and Technology • Accurate calendar • Hieroglyphics: system of writing called • Advanced mathematical geometry & engineering skills in the creation of the pyramids • irrigation systems .
building & architecture. mummification.• • • • • Monarchy – Kingdom/Empire Pharaoh God/King Dynasty – ruling family EGYPT Polytheistic Advances in medicine. jewelry. peasants. merchants/artisans (Middle Class). calendars. slaves . math. pyramids. Priest/Nobles. cosmetics. irrigation. metal work • Social Class Structure: Pharaoh.
Ancient Egypt .
Features of Medicine • Professional Doctors for the wealthy • Most specialised in particular parts of the body • Some Herbal treatments • Lucky charms used to prevent illness • Prayers to the gods .
tears. urine and air • Also carried ‗Wehedu‘ – bad substances that caused illness .Anatomical Knowledge • Egyptians Embalmed the dead so had some knowledge • Knew about some internal organs – Heart and Lungs • Believed organs were connected by ‗channels‘ called Metu • They carried fluids of the body – blood.
IMPORTANT NOTE • Embalming added little to medical knowledge • Embalmers worked in secret • Embalmers removed organs through the nose and small slits in the body • They DID NOT OPEN UP BODIES .
What did they believe caused Illness? • Natural and supernatural causes • Blocked Channels • Upsetting the Gods Back to Contents Page .
MESOPOTAMIA – FERTILE CRESCENT • Sumerians 1st Civilization: 1st to build wheeled vehicles . dykes.algebra and geometry • Sumerian: .3500 BCE • built irrigation systems. and canals for better farming • Cuneiform system of writing – 1st • Sumerian.city-states. . Preist/Kings polytheistic.
Fertile Crescent & Mesopotamia .
1st library of cuneiform tablets.Other Civilizations Fertile Crescent • Babylonians: astronomy. was the first written laws in history • Hittites: first to mine iron ore to produce iron weapons & tools (Iron Age) • Assyrians: new military equipment moveable towers and battering rams. chariot . Code of Hammurabi.
Other Civilizations Fertile Crescent Code on columns in each city-state Assyrian weapons & chariot .
governor called a satrap • Taxes on resources and wealth • Single code of laws for the empire • Royal Roads to unify empire. single coinage • Zoroastrian Religion – good & evil & polytheistic faiths Other Civilizations Fertile Crescent .• Persians: controlled empire Asia Minor to India (to Indus River) • Persians: divided empire into provinces. common set of weights & measures.
Coins Persian Empire Royal Roads Weights & Measures .
phonetic alphabet-22 letters (adapted by Greeks and Romans) .Other Civilizations Fertile Crescent • Phoenicians: Manufacturing and trade. sea snail-purple dye (royal purple). colonization around Mediterranean Sea. glass.
as well as Old Testament of the Bible • Places of Worship-Jews worship in temples called synagogues • One God who is the creator of all things .oldest known monotheistic religion • Founder-Abraham • Moses-Prophet: Ten Commandments 2000 BCE – Laws • Significant Writings-Torah and Talmud Book of laws & beliefs.Hebrews/Jews • Hebrews: Judaism .
India • 2500BCE: First cultivation of rice. international commerce (Indian Ocean & overland) • well-planned towns. cotton and tea • built ships. they had drainage systems that led into brick-lined sewers . rectangular patterns • Art -copper. lined the town streets. bronze. navigated seas. including a large collection of terra-cotta toys • two-storied and spacious. and pottery.
Ancient India Social Class Structure: Caste System: Brahmana (priests). and Shudra (workers). Person's occupation or Sanskrit: writing system group depended upon birth . Kshatriya (warriors). Vaishya (traders and agriculturists).
teachings of Hinduism • spiritual oneness of the soul.• HINDUISM: polytheistic religion 3000 BCE • Significant Writings-Vedas. Bhagavad Gita • Oral 1st. atman • soul obtains moksha or liberation Ancient India . Ramayana. Upanishads. Written in Sanskrit – history & hymns. Mahabharata.Religion .
Hinduism • Reincarnation: karma you get what you give new life • Dharma: Duties of all Hindu‘s in their caste • Supports rigid social structure Caste System • Cow Sacred .
end desire • Eightfold Path: represents one of the teachings of the Eightfold Path – right thinking. . speaking etc." – he did not believe he was a god • Dalai Lama:spiritual leader of Buddhism • Four Noble Truths – beliefs – end suffereing. which means "enlightened one.Buddhism • Founder-Siddhartha Gautama • Buddha.
new life.Buddhism • Reincarnation: karma you get what you give. continuous cycle of life & death • Rejected Caste System • Salvation possible in this Lifetime • Nirvana spiritual enlightenment .
drawings of objects ideographs – thought or idea • Oracle Bone early writing: • Zhou Dynasty: Mandate of Heaven rise & fall of dynasties Qin Dynasty: Shi huangdi new technologies warfare. cavalry.• Shang Dynasty: 2000BCE system of writing pictographs . Legalism – you will obey orders! Burned Confucian books Early China .
• Qin China: standardized the language and writing of China • currency became standardized circular copper coin • Great Wall built in north to protect China • Roads and irrigation canals built –Burned books Ancient China .
Golden Age of China Han scientists wrote textbooks from zoology to botany and chemistry Astronomers accurate clocks & calendars. Paper.Classical China Han China: Emperor Wudi: government & economy. Acupuncture alleviate pain & herbal remedies Silk Road: trade with the Roman Empire and later empires east & west . wheelbarrow.
& the elaborate temples • Silk. wood. or ivory. Ceramics. lacquer and Silk Road – 1st journey bamboo wares Chinese Compass .Classical China • Artists and architects carvings in jade.
500 BCE • Founder-Kong Fu Zi .sayings .Confucius • Significant WritingsThe Analects .Chinese Philosophies • Ancestor worship • Confucianism: social order and mutual respect .
– Friend to friend Jen-Human kindness should be shown towards one another. Filial Piety-One should respect their elders Chinese Philosophies Confucianism . – Father to son. and one should strive to achieve perfect virtue.• Five Relationships: – Ruler to ruled. – Older brother to younger brother. – Husband to wife. Li-Proper etiquette should always be used.
Ancient Civilisations • • • • • • From 8000BC Farming Settlements appear Diseases e.g. Malaria Dirtier Writing Develops Back to Contents Page .
The Greeks • 800BC to 338BC • City States • Worshipped the Gods of Olympus • Some started to challenge the Gods • Believed Education was Very important • Science – wanted to make sense of the World • Philosophers .
Features of Early Greek Medicine • Asklepios – Greek God of Healing • Asklepions – Temples of Healing .
Features of Late Greek Medicine 430 BC • • • • • • • Hippocrates Clinical Observation 4 Humours Ethical Behaviour Rejection of Supernatural Ideas Ethical Behaviour Regimen – Diet and exercise – Prevention better than cure .
Anatomical Knowledge • • • • Greek Philosopher: Aristotle Dissected animals NOT humans The Heart – key organ in the body Studied the connection between blood vessels and brains .
Alexandria – 331 BC • In the third Century BC became the most important centre of medicine • Herophilos – improved understanding of the brain • Erasistratos – identified Cerebrum and Cerebellum • HUMAN DISSECTION Allowed until the Romans took over Back to Contents Page .
The Romans • 510 BC to 476 AD • Well-Organised Government • Roman Army • Love – Hate relationship with the Greeks • Very practical • Similar religion to Greeks .
Features of Early Roman Medicine • • • • • No Doctors Family medicine – male dominated Used a few farmyard materials In particular – Wool and Cabbage Supernatural beliefs – adopted Asklepions from Greeks • Resisted the new Hippocratic Doctors from Greece – They didn‘t like paying them and thought they were dangerous .
g. blood letting • Wrote huge amount of books – became accepted as Gospels . pepper to patients.Features of Late Roman Medicine • • • • Gradually adopted Hippocratic Doctors Most Famous –Claudius Galen Believed in 4 Humours Became more active in treatment – Treated with opposites e.
Anatomical Knowledge • • • • Galen improved Knowledge Treated Gladiators Dissected Animals – remember the Pig Made mistakes – the Heart Back to Contents Page .
Middle Ages • 476 AD to Circa 1450 • Frequent Wars • Christianity in the West • Islam in the East .
.Medicine in the Dark Ages 476 to Circa 1000 (West) • • • • • • Roman and Greek medical books lost Training for doctors disappeared Illness was caused and cured by God It was considered Holy to care for the sick Mostly Nuns and Monks Some Herbal Remedies (Provided by God) and blood letting • Four Humours Theory still used.
The Late Middle Ages – 1000 to circa 1450 (West)
• Increase in Hospitals to care for sick and poor • Uroscopy – study of urine to diagnose imbalance in 4 humours • Astrological Ideas – The position of the stars could influence health • Better Training of doctors for the Rich
• Universities set up – doctors licensed by university qualification • Women could not become doctors • Women continued to care for the poor • University Doctors saw themselves as superior to Apothecaries (sellers of drugs and herbal remedies) and Barber surgeons( barbers who performed simple operations e.g. removing boils)
• Medieval doctors believed in preventive medicine • Blood letting of Healthy people to keep the 4 humours in balance (carried out by Barber Surgeons) ‗Venesection‘ or Cupping • Treatments – Hot baths, Laxatives, Blood letting, enemas (a purgative mixture squirted into the anus using a long pipe and bellows)
removal of arrowheads • Early experiments with Anaesthetics – Opium to make patient sleepy • Wine used to stop infection • Some more complicated operations e. removal of bladder stones • Most Surgeons not University trained.g.Surgery in Middle Ages (West) • Some Advances due to constant wars – e. .g.
Anatomical Knowledge • Human Dissection was disapproved of • Several attempts to ban it all together • Little increase in knowledge Back to Contents Page .
• Hospital sites selected by hanging meat up .Medieval Medicine in the East • Caliphs maintained order • Greek and Roman Manuscripts preserved • Medical schools and libraries part of hospitals • Called ‗Bimaristans‘ • Maristans – Hospitals for mentally ill.
East Continued • Al-Rhazi • Clinical Observation distinguished measles from Small Pox • Challenged Galen‘s theory about the heart • Ibn Sina • ‗al-Qanun‘ Encyclopaedia of medical knowledge • 760 drugs Back to Contents Page .
Renaissance Medicine • Circa 1450 to Circa 1650 • Rebirth of Greek Ideas about understanding the world • Exploration • Illustration • Printing Press • Scientific Research • Reduction of power of the church .
Medical Knowledge in the Renaissance • During this period there are a number of individuals that increased medical knowledge .
Leonardo da Vinci • Inventor and artist • Wanted to produce more realistic paintings • Carried out dissections so he could understand how the human body worked • More accurate drawings .
Vesalius – Anatomist 1514-1564 • Carried out dissections on dead bodies • Originally a follower of Galen • Later challenged some of Galen‘s theories (Septum of Heart – Not Porous) • Published a book on Anatomy using a renaissance artist to illustrate. • De Humani Corporis Fabrica .
Realdo Colombo • Proved blood went from right to left ventricles of the heart via the lungs .
Gabriele Falloppia • Studied workings of the Womb .
Fabricus • Studied Valves of the veins .
William Harvey – Physiologist 1578 -1657 • Studied how the body worked • Proved how blood circulated around the body – simple experiments • His work was initially rejected • Only accepted in 1673 when Paris University began to teach his findings .
Ambroise Pare 1510-1590 • Barber Surgeon • Became military surgeon • Changed treatment of gunshot wounds (accidentally discovered that dressing wounds was more effective than cauterising) • Developed ligatures for use with amputations • Proved Bezoar didn‘t work • Developed technique of ‗Podalic Version‘ – turning baby in the womb .
• His ideas were also rejected and criticised by the medical establishment • He was ‗only‘ a surgeon .
.Paracelsus 1493-1541 • Rejected 4 Humours • Illness caused by chemicals inside the body • Believed Chemicals like salt. sulphur and mercury could be used to treat illness • Rejected by Medical establishment during his lifetime.
bark of Perwian Tree and Bezoar Back to Contents Page . ground up human skull. laxatives.Progress? • These new ideas were rejected initially • Increase in knowledge about the body – little advance in treatments • When King Charles II was dying (1685) he received the following treatments: • Blood letting.
Industrialisation and Enlightenment • Circa 1700 to Circa 1900 • Production of goods changes to factories led to growth in towns • Clear logical thought • Improvements in Science and technology • Doctors start to work in a way we would reconise today .
Edward Jenner • Introduced Vaccination as a way of preventing Small Pox • Infected people with cow pox to help them build up a resistance to small pox • Great resistance at first! • Others had tried similar experiments but had not proved it scientifically or published their work. .
Louis Pasteur • Germ Theory • Made the connection between germs and disease. • These microbes/germs could be killed if heated – PASTEURISATION • Also Identified germ that caused Anthrax • Developed Vaccines for Chicken Cholera and Rabies . • Showed that microbes carried in dust in the air caused decay.
Cholera. meningitis. plague and dysentery .Robert Koch • • • • Identified the germs that caused: Tuberculosis. Developed Dyes to help identify Germs Helped develop the Petri dish – Uses Agar jelly to grow microbes/germs and makes it possible to photograph • Others used his methods to discover the causes of pneumonia.
Improvements in Surgery • Anaesthetics developed – Nitrous Oxide. Chloroform • Pain Free operations – More complex invasive surgery could be attempted. • But Patients still died . Ether.
clean gowns and masks. sterilising equipment.Fighting Infection in Surgery • Antiseptic surgery • Use of carbolic acid to kill germs • Aseptic Surgery • Keeping germs away from the operation – washing hands. wearing gloves and keeping theatres clean Back to Contents Page .
The Modern World • 1900 onwards • Huge improvements in Science and Technology • World Wars .
• Developed the first ‗Magic Bullet‘ Salvarsan 606 – a chemical drug that kills the specific germ that causes syphilis
• Developed the second magic bullet – based on a dye called Prontosil – kills streptococcal bacteria • Much more powerful than Salvarsan 606 • Stops infections like pneumonia and meningitis
• Wanted to find a drug that would fight simple infections caused by germs getting into soldiers wounds in WW1 • Accidentally discovered a mould that killed staphylococci bacteria – published his findings – Known as Penicillin • Failed to test it on live tissue • Others may have made the discovery before him.
Howard Florey and Ernst Chain • Read about Flemming‘s discovery • Chain worked out the structure of Penicillin and was able to grow the mould in brewers yeast • Florey used Penicillin on a Policeman suffering from Staphylococcal septicaemia • Policeman improved but died because they did not have enough penicillin .
Moyer • Developed a method of mass producing penicillin using a culture broth of corn steep liquor and lactose.Andrew J. • Thousands of lives were saved during WW2 as a result .
Surgery • Blood transfusions – blood grouping. prevention of clotting and storage • Improvements in Plastic Surgery (WWI) • Skin grafts – treatment of severe burns (WW2) .
Genetics • DNA • Identification of Genetic Disorders .
Technology • • • • • • X-Ray machines Body Scanners Ultrasound Laser treatment Pacemakers Artificial limbs .
Problems? • • • • • • STIs HIV and AIDS Famine Cancer Obesity MRSA Back to Contents Page .