Prepared by: Hasan Saeed Al-Qadheeb Abdulmohsin Allwoimi

Supervisor: Eng. Qasem Abu Al-Haija'

 Due to the massive amount of information we have in Introduction: the computer system. . we need for huge storage device to store these information.  Hard disk is a very slow device on the computer system.  Usually the hard disk used to store large amount of information.

 The MMU translates the logical address to a physical address into two ways.By using the substation technique.  To control the accesses to the memory.  Perform address mappings. .Memory Management  The system designed should be managed by the (OS) and a hardware device  Memory Management Unit (MMU) is a chip located between the Microprocessor and the memory. As shown in the figure ……. 1.  Act as an interface between the logical and physical address spaces. 2.By using the offset technique.

Memory Management • Address translation using the substitution technique is faster than the offset method. • However. the offset method has the advantage of mapping a logical address to any physical address as determined by the offset value. .

 Segmentation. .Logical Addresses Mapping  There are three ways to map logical addresses to physical addresses:  Paging.  Combined (Paging / Segmentation).

 in a system that uses a virtual memory. . the size of the virtual address space is usually much larger than the available physical address space. and thus a program can be written assuming a huge address space is available.Virtual Memory  Virtual memory can be defined as: A mapping from a virtual address space to a physical address space.  The programmer does not have to worry about overlay design.

Segmentation systems.Virtual Memory  virtual memory system may be configured in one of the following ways: 1. . 2.Paging systems.

Virtual Memory .  The physical memory is also divided into equal-size blocks called frames.  The size of a page is the same as the size of a frame.Paging system  The virtual address space is divided into equal-size blocks called pages. .

.Virtual Memory .1 Design a mapping scheme with the following specifications:  Virtual address space = 32K words  Main memory size = 8K words  Page size = 2K words  Secondary memory address = 24 bits Solution: 32K words can be divided into (32K/2K)= 16 virtual pages with (32K/16)= 2K= 2048 words per page.Paging system Example 8. As following: ……….

12287 12288.10239 10240.VIRTUAL ADDRESS 0-2047 2048-4095 4096-6 143 6144-819 1 8 192.1843 1 18432-20479 20480-22527 22528-24575 24576-26623 26624-28671 28672-30719 30720-32767 PAGE NUMBER 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .14335 14336-1 6383 16384.

 Since there are 8K words in the main memory. ( 8k/2k) 4 frames with (8k/4) 2K words per frame are available: PHYSICAL ADDRESS 0-2047 2048-4095 4096-6 143 6 1 44-8 1 9 1 FRAME NUMBER 0 1 2 3 .

24 bits for secondary memory address 5 bits for future use. 2 bits for main memory page frame number.Virtual Memory size = 32k = (2^15)  1 bit for determining     whether the page table is in main memory or not (residence bit). (Unused) 32 bits total Memory size = 8k = (2^13) END .

 Replacement Policy Algorithms . best-fit algorithm.Operating System Software Management Strategies  Fetch Policy Demand and Preparing  Placement Policy First-fit algorithm. worst-fit algorithm.

 Preparing brings in more pages than needed .  Demand paging only brings pages into main memory when Page number locate to the page.Fetch Policy  Fetch Policy: Determines when a page should be brought into memory.

 . places the program in the Largest available free block or hole.Placement Policy  Where is a page placed?  Using one of these algorithms  First-fit algorithm:  places the program in the first available free block or hole. places the program in the Smallest available free block or hole.   best-fit algorithm.  worst-fit algorithm.

Least Recently Used(LRU): The LRU policy. it is necessary to remove a page from main memory to accommodate the new page.Replacement Policy If the main memory is full during transfer from secondary to main memory. 1. . on the other hand. (Poor Choice) 2. First-in-First-Out(FIFO): FIFO policy removes the page from main memory that has been resident in memory for the longest amount of time. replaces the page that has not been used for the longest amount of time.

3.6. 2.5.Example 8.2.1. Solution: .4.6 Consider the following stream of page requests.2.6 Determine the hit ratio h for this stream using the FIFO replacement policy.4. Assume the main memory can hold 3 page frames and initially all of them are vacant.6.