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Cellular Automata & its applications

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Its Applications

Introduction to Automata

Simple computing device

Properties

Finite set of states

Transitions from state to state

Sense the environment.

Possibly change the environment.

Go to a new state,

2

Automation Examples

Coke machine

Inputs:

coins, bills, return

button, choice buttons

State:

money entered so far,…

Outputs:

coke, sprite,

returned coins

3

Cellular Automata

4

What is Cellular

Automata ??

A CA is an array of identically programmed

automata or cells, which interact in one another

in neighborhood and have definite state.

nature.

Discrete time/space logical universes.

Complexity from simple rule set: reductionist

approach.

Deterministic local physical model.

Rough estimation of nature: no precision.

This model does not reflect ‘closed sphere’ life:

can achieve same end results given rules and5

Cellular Automata

Automata are arranged

geometrically

All automata are identical

All automata change state

simultaneously

6

Communication

Output is the state (indicated by color)

Rule

7

Cellular Automata

Cellular

automata can be used to

model complex systems using simple

rules.

Key features

divide problem space into cells

each cell can be in one of several finite

states

cells are affected by neighbors according

to rules

all cells are affected simultaneously in a

generation 8

One-Dimensional (1-D) CA

Each cell has at most two neighbors

All cells identical

Cell can be initialized to different

states

Example: 1D CA operating through

time under “Rule 90” Time T = 1

Time T = 2

9

“Rule 90” = One of 28 Elementary

1D CA

90 =( 01011010)_base 2 = 0*27+1*26+0*25+1*24+1*23+0*22+1*21+0*20

10

Rule 90

11

2-Dimensional CA

Each cell can have two or more

neighbors.

12

Neighborhood of 2-D CA

Neighborhood Neighborhood

13

Famous 2D CA Example:

The Game of Life

Objective: To make a CA 'game' as

unpredictable as possible using the simplest

possible CA rule.

2D grid of squares on a (possibly infinite) plane.

Each square can be alive (black) or dead (white).

Dead cells can come alive, and alive cells can die,

depending on their neighbors.

Each cell has 8 alive or dead neighbors (pasted

edges assumed), 4 adjacent orthogonally and 4

adjacent diagonally.

So Game of Life assumes Moore Neighborhoods.

14

The “Rules of Life”

Ifan alive (black) cell has fewer than 2 alive

neighbors, it dies (turns white) – loneliness.

neighbors, it dies – overcrowding.

neighbors, it goes on living (stays black) –

happiness.

comes alive reproduction. Otherwise it stays

dead. 15

How the Game of Life

Proceeds

The game proceeds in generations,

one generation per time step T

In

the initial generation at T=1, a finite

number of cells are alive

cells come alive and some die

according to the “Rules of Life.”

16

Example

17

This is the Glider pattern. It is shown here moving on

the board as it evolves. This picture is adequate for

usage in Conway's Game of Life article, because it

follows the same graphic standard used in the pictures

there. T)

18

Applications

Biological Systems

Iterative Arrays – parallel computer

hardware

Artificial Societies

Art & Design

Computer Graphics

Image Processing

Games

19

Simulation Goals using CA

Avoid extremes: patterns that grow too

quickly (unlimited) or patterns that die

quickly

Desirable behaviors:

No initial patterns where unlimited growth is

obvious through simple proof

Should discover initial patterns for which this occurs

Simple initial patterns should grow and change

before ending by:

fading away completely

stabilizing the configuration

oscillating between 2 or more stable configurations

Behavior of population should be relatively

20

unpredictable

Cellular Automata

Formalism

An important component of a Cellular Automaton is

its interconnection graph, G.

This graph is, typically, an n-dimensional grid.

But it can be other grid,.

Or slightly irregular

Or irregular

states. The state set, Q, of a Cellular Automaton is the

set of all possible states that a cell can be in.

of the CA.

21

Cellular Automata

Formalism

A configuration, x, of a CA is a mapping from the

graph to the state set, which assigns a state from the

state set Q to each node in the graph T , i.e.

x: T Q

x(i) = q, where I € T and q € Q

the Cellular Automaton on a global scale Cellular

Automata Formalism

22

Cellular Automata

Formalism

The computation of CAs, though, is a local

process. The next state of each cell depends

on its current state, and the states of its

closest neighbors only.

Thus,

we need to define the concept of a cell

neighborhood.

automaton, is the collection of cells situated

at a “distance” r or less from the cell in

question. Cellular Automata Formalism

23

Cellular Automata

Formalism

Each cell of a CA is a simple Finite State Machine

denoted ∂, is a function, which receives as inputs the

state of a cell and its “neighbors”, and computes the

next state of the cell.

defined as follows:

∂(xi-1, xi, xi+1) = xi’

xi-1, xi, xi+1 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111

∂(xi-1, xi, xi+1) 1 0 0 1 0 1 1

0 24

Cellular Automata

Formalism

Formally, a Cellular Automaton is a

quadruple

G - interconnection graph,

Q - set of states

N - neighborhood (e.g. von

Neumann, etc.)

d - local dynamics

25

Cellular Automata

Formalism: Global Dynamics

The

local dynamics, d, of a CA describes the

computation occurring locally at each cell.

system is captured by the notion of global

dynamics. The global dynamics, T, of a CA is

a mapping from the set of configurations C

to itself, i.e.

T: C C

overall state of the CA changes from one

instance to the next, 26

Cellular Automata : Link To

Dynamical Systems

Since the global computation is determined by the

computation of each individual cell, the global

dynamics, T, is defined in terms of the local

dynamics, d:

T(x)i := d(xi-1, xi, xi+1)

Automaton evolves in time by computing the

successive iterations of the global dynamics:

x, T(x), T 2(x)=T(T(x)), …, Tn (x), …

a computation of the forward orbit of a discrete

dynamical system. 27

Cellular Automata as

Dynamical Systems

Chaos Theory

Chaotic Behavior of

Dynamical Systems

28

Dynamical Systems

A Discrete Dynamical System is an iterated

function over some domain, i.e.

F: D D

Example 1: F(x) = x

29

Dynamical Systems

A Discrete Dynamical System is an iterated

function over some domain, i.e.

F: D D

Example 1: F(x) = x

x=0, F(0) = 0, F(F(0)) = F2(0) = 0, … ,

Fn(0) = 0 …

30

Dynamical Systems

A Discrete Dynamical System is an iterated

function over some domain, i.e.

F: D D

Example 1: F(x) = x

x=0, F(0) = 0, F(F(0)) = F2(0) = 0, … ,

Fn(0) = 0 …

=3…

31

Dynamical Systems

A Discrete Dynamical System is an iterated

function over some domain, i.e.

F: D D

Example 1: F(x) = x

x=0, F(0) = 0, F(F(0)) = F2(0) = 0, … ,

Fn(0) = 0 …

=3…

Fn(-5) = -5 ... 32

Dynamical Systems

Example 2: F(x) = -x

0, ...

33

Dynamical Systems

Example 2: F(x) = -x

0, ...

= 3,

Fn+1(3) = -3, ...

34

Dynamical Systems

Boring life, push

Example and pull regularity

2: F(x) = -x

0, ...

3,

Fn+1(3) = -3, ...

5) = -5, Fn+1(-5) = 5,

35

Dynamical Systems

A point, x, in the

domain of a dynamical Representati

system, F, is a fixed on of

abstract

point iff F(x) = x. state of a

system

A point, x, in the

domain of a dynamical

system, F, is a periodic

point iff Fn(x) = x

A point, x, in the

domain of a dynamical

system, F, is eventually

periodic if Fm+n(x)=Fm(x)

Life becomes more interesting

36

Dynamical Systems A point in the

state space ,

Sometimes certain think about a

points in the domain ball in

mountain like

of some dynamical terrain

systems exhibit very

interesting properties:

A point, x, in the

domain of F is called

an attractor iff there is A different

a neighborhood of x representation of

such that any point in state space

that neighborhood, (branching from a

under iteration of F, point now

tends to approach x possible).

A point, x, in the

domain of F is called a

repeller iff there is a

neighborhood of x

such that any point in

that neighborhood,

under iteration of F, 37

Interesting Research

Questions

Our goals, when studying a dynamical system

are:

To predict the long-term, asymptotic

behavior of the system given some initial

point, x,

of the system, such as:

attractors,

repellers,

periodic points,

etc.

38

Dynamical Systems

predicting the long-term, asymptotic

behavior is fairly simple (recall examples 1

and 2)

than just a few iterations into the future.

Such unpredictable systems are usually

called chaotic.

39

Chaotic Dynamics

A chaotic dynamical system has 3

distinguishing

characteristics:

cannot be decomposed and studied piece-by-piece

implies that numerical simulations are useless, since

small errors get magnified under iteration, and soon

the orbit we are computing looks nothing like the real

orbit of the system.

the system - amidst unpredictability, there is an40

Cellular Automata as

Dynamical Systems

Automation in terms of iterating its global dynamics,

T, can be considered a dynamical system.

of local dynamics, d, the CA can exhibit any kind of

behavior typical for a dynamical system - fixed,

periodic, or even chaotic.

phenomena and systems, understanding the behavior

of Cellular Automata will lead to a better

understanding of the world around us!

41

Cellular Automata as BIST

pattern generators

42

BIST Pattern Generator

(BIST) is to generate test patterns

on-chip and also to compact the

test responses on-chip

43

Current Pattern

Generators - LFSR

Linear Feedback Shift Register

Chain of flip flops with feedback taps

High auto-correlation

Non-local feedback

44

Cellular Automata as Pattern

Generators

Each CA cell is a flip flop with its input

based only on its local neighbors

Regular/local design allows compact

layout

Better pseudo-random patterns

without auto-correlation

45

Cellular Automata Cells

Each CA cell consists of a Xc-1(t) Xc+1(t)

flip flop and an XOR gate Left

Neighbor

Right

Neighbor Xc(t)

to determine its next

state

potentially be from itself, Xc(t+1)

its left neighbor and/or its

right neighbor

present determines the

type of CA cell

46

Characterization of CA

Cells

We characterize a CA cell by its truth table

The binary number created becomes the

rule

010110102 = 9010 100101102 = 15010

Xc-1(t) Xc(t) Xc+1(t)

27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

111 110 101 100 011 010 001 000 Rule

#

Xc-1(t) Xc+1(t) 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 90

Xc+1(t)

47

Characterization of CA

which neighbors it connects to.

connects to the left and right neighbors

but not itself.

using a matrix

48

Matrix Characterization of

CA

Such a matrix is called a characteristic

matrix or CA matrix

1, if the next state of the ith

cell

T[ i, j ] = depends on the present

state of

the jth cell

0, otherwise

49

Example CA Matrix

4 Cell CA 1 1 1 0

1 1 0 0

T = 11 11 11 00

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

50

State Transitions Using

CA Matrix

If the current state of the CA is

ft(x), ft+1(x) = T·ft(x):

Addition operator is XOR

T ft(x) ft+1(x)

1 1 0 0 11 0

1 1 1 0 11 0

=

00

0 1 0 1 1

0

0 0 1 1 0 0

Jeffrey Dwoskin - Cellular Automata as

4/19/2002 BIST pattern generators 51

Characteristic Polynomial

We can find the characteristic polynomial

of a CA by constructing the matrix T + xI

and computing its determinant:

T T+xI

1 1 0 0 1+x 1 0 0

1 1 1 0 1 1+x 1 0

0 1 0 1 0 1 x 1

0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1+x

52

Group CA

Ifthe CA characterized by T forms a cyclic

group, then:

Tm = I (identity matrix)

CA

det T = 1

53

Maximum Length Group

CA

A Group CA can be classified as

maximum-length by the presence of a

cycle of length 2n-1 with all non-zero

states

will be primitive – i.e. the polynomial has

no factors

54

Non-Maximum Length Group

CA

Multiple cycles

then the lengths of the cycles are the factors

of m

55

References

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_automata

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway%27s_Game_of_Lif

e

http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/ladner/ca/info/M

athday_presentation.pdf

http://www.econ.iastate.edu/classes/econ308

/tesfatsion/CellularAutomataIntro.LT.pdf

56

Thank You !!!!

57

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