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Introduction to Wimax
 Wimax means Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave
Access .

 WiMax is a telecommunications technology aimed at

providing wireless connectivity over long distances .

 WiMax networks utilize a radio technology called IEEE

802.16 d/e standard.
Introduction Cont.
 High data transfer rate of upto 70 MBPS.

 WiMax provide performance similar to wired networks like


 WiMax is also called Wireless MAN (Metropolitan Area

A WiMAX system consists of two major parts:

3. A WiMAX base station.

4. A WiMAX receiver.

WiMAX Base Station:

WiMAX transmitting tower

 A WiMAX base station consists of indoor electronics and a
tower similar in concept to a cell-phone tower.

 Each base station provides wireless coverage over an area

called a cell.

 Theoretically, the maximum radius of a cell is 50 km

,however, practical considerations limit it to about 10 km.

 A WiMAX receiver may have a separate antenna or a stand-

alone box card in your or computer ( also referred to as
Customer Premise Equipment (CPE).

 WiMAX base station is similar to accessing a wireless access

point in a WiFi network, but the coverage is greater.
How does WiMax work?
 WiMax networks use radio technologies called IEEE
802.11d, 802.11e to provide secure, reliable, fast wireless

 A WiMax network can be used to connect several LAN’s to

each other or to the Internet.

 WiMax networks operate in the 2 to 11 GHz and 10 to 66

GHz radio bands.
Wireless Services Provided by WiMAX
2 Types:-

 Non Line of Sight : where a small antenna on your computer

connects to the tower using a lower frequency range 2 GHz to
11 GHz .

 Line of Sight : where a fixed dish antenna points straight at the

WiMAX tower from a rooftop or pole.

• Connection is stronger and more stable.

• Transmissions use higher frequencies resulting in less
interference and lots more bandwidth.
 A WiMAX tower station can connect directly to the Internet
using a high-bandwidth, wired connection or a LoS
microwave link.

 Backhaul refers both to the connection from the access point

back to the base station and to the connection from the base
station to the core network.

 It is possible to connect several base stations to one another

using high-speed backhaul microwave links.
The 802.16 Protocol Stack
The 802.16 Physical Layer

 Millimeter waves propagate in straight lines

• multiple antennas
 Signal strength and signal-to-noise ratio drop
significantly with distance- What is the
Adaptive PHY Layer
The 802.16 Physical Layer

 Uses frequency Division Multiplexing

and Time Division Multiplexing

 Frames and time slots for time division

Updated Standard : OFDM (802.16d)

FDM with Nine Sub-carriers

OFDM with Nine Sub-carriers

MAC Protocol

 Convergence sub layer

Handle the higher-layer protocols

 Common part sub layer

Channel access, connection establishment
and maintenance, and QoS

 Security sub layer

Authentication, secure key exchange, and encryption
MAC Common Part Sublayer

 Connection-oriented protocol
Assign connection ID to each service flow
 Each service flow has its own QoS
parameter setting
Security Sub layer

The MAC security sub layer has two

component protocols:
Encapsulation protocol for data encryption
defines cryptographic suites i.e. pairings of data
encryption and authentication algorithms
Privacy key management (PKM)
describes how the BS distributes keys to client SS
The 802.16 Frame Structure
Comparison with Wi-Fi
 IEEE Standards
 Type
 Speeds
 Range
 Bit rate
 Easy and relatively inexpensive.

 Wireless alternative to cable and DSL for last mile

broadband access.

 High-speed data and telecommunications services.

 Connectivity to FAR-OFF regions

 A commonly-held misconception is that WiMAX will deliver
70 Mbit/s over 50 kilometers. Both of these qualities are true
individually, given ideal circumstances, but they are not
simultaneously true.

 Shared Bandwidth: Available bandwidth is shared between

users in a given radio sector, so performance could
deteriorate in the case of many active users in a single sector.
Competing technologies
 Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS)

 CDMA2000

 High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area Network

 WiMAX is cable replacement technology.

 It has the potential to revolutionize the wireless industry.

 IEEE Documents.

 Wikipedia.

 Service Providers and Hardware Vendors

 WhitePapers