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Its Like Climbing a Big Mountain.

--Gavilan College ESL Student, Fall 2010

Determined Excited Happy Comfortable Confident Hopeful Emotional Looking Forward Opportunity Quest Curious Challenging Fun Proud Strong

Nervous Scared Insecure Hard Embarrassed Confused Emotional Separation

In those classes, there are English speakers and the teachers think that everybody can talk and understand.
Maybe it will be difficult to make friends.

If I dont understand something, the students will laugh at me.

I dont think they (teachers) will be as patient with me as ESL teachers.

Dont have the opportunity to speak English at home or at work Intimidated by interaction with native speakers (being asked to repeat, puzzled looks, eye rolls, shrugged shoulders, etc.) while trying to negotiate meaning Self-Consciousness Feeling of marginalization

I like to share my opinions and get to know other students. They can know me more, so they will not judge me just because I dont speak perfect English. --Gavilan ESL student (Spring 2010)

Paw Savang is a Laotian woman taking classes in an American college. Observations about Paw (Tip of the Iceberg): Shy, Struggling to engage with peers, Struggling with comprehension of texts and assignments, falling behind.

Without exploring beneath the waterline, here is what you would never know about Paw: a) Paw was separated from her father, who was placed in a refugee camp; upon his return, he was verbally abusive. b) Paw was taught that girls dont question authority. c) Paw wasnt literate in her native language. d) Paw did not know how to ask questions in class. She was unsure about classroom protocol (e.g. how long she should keep her hand raised). e) Paw did not have the same reference points as her peers.

Misunderstanding based on lack of knowledge of the social and academic cultures of the students

Struggling to communicate effectivelyinside and outside of the classroom


Confusing second language learning with remediation

Support and help outside of class Getting texts ahead of time in order to read and prepare Opportunities to practice what they are learning. ESL Panels

Second Language Acquisition

Understanding of Whole Student: Student Culture (Older Immigrant, 1.5 Generation, Refugee, First Generation, etc.)
Effective Methods of Text Correction Effective Methods of Dialoguing in the Classroom Creating Effective Student Work Groups Creating Opportunities for students to demonstrate strengths/expertise.

Offers a safe learning environment Encourages Risk Taking Allows sharing areas of difficulty Makes the reading process visible Emphasizes metacognition (self-awareness/selfmonitoring) Develops Peer Connections Develops Problem-Solving strategies

Skills Students Have Developed in ESL Persisting Striving for Accuracy Questioning and Problem Posing Remaining Open to Continuous Learning Responding With Wonderment and Awe Finding Humor

Skills ESL Students Need to Succeed in Mainstream Courses Thinking Flexibly Thinking about their Thinking Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and Precision Thinking Interdependently

Taking Responsible Risks

I want to have some native speakers as friends. Im sure that they can learn from me, and I can learn a lot from them too!