Learning out-comes
At the end of this lecture, you should be able to:
List out the relevant codes of practice used in concrete design (CO1) b) Explain the concept of SLS and ULS(CO1) c) Explain a basic concept of concrete design(CO1).

. size and configuration to carry loads in a safe and suitable for usage.  Structural design is the selection of materials and member type. It is also consider to be build and maintenance with a minimum cost.Structural Design  Design is the planning that lay the basis for the making of every object or system.

 Overall economy with the advantages of corrosion and fire resistance. it being one of the principal materials used in structural design. Retaining Walls.Design in Reinforced Concrete  Importance of RC. Highways Bridges . Water Retaining structures.  Type of application: Structural Frames.  Complimentary properties and cost consequences.

WHAT ?  REINFORCED CONCRETE (RC) . aggregates. . sand and water).Composite material consisting of STEEL reinforcing bars embedded in CONCRETE (mix of cement.

.WHY ?  REINFORCED CONCRETE (RC) . Load Compression Tension Reinforcement steel bar Cracking .CONCRETE has a good compressive strength.STEEL has a very high tensile strength compared to concrete. So it makes the structures strong enough. while.


These structures are normally designed in accordance with a variety of CODES:  BS 5400: Code of Practice for the Design of Steel. Concrete and Composite Bridges.  BS 8110: Code of Practice for the Structural use of Concrete .  BS 8007: Code of Practice for the Design of Concrete structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids.

doubly reinforced beams and rectangular columns . Charts for the design of singly reinforced beams. Doubly Reinforced and Rectangular Columns.  Part 1: Code of Practice for Design and Construction. Torsion.  Part 2: Code of Practice for Special Circumstances. Covers material commonly required for everyday design.BS8110 is divided into 3 parts. Deflection and Elastic Deformation  Part 3: Design Charts for Singly Reinforced Beams.

Irrespective of the element being designed a designer will need an understanding of :  The symbols used  The Basis of Design  Material Properties  Loading  Stress Strain Relationships  Durability and  Fire Resistance Symbols .

. that is will not reach a limit state. Limit State method .with two principal states normally covered.Basis of Design Purposes of design – to achieve acceptable probabilities that a structure will not become unfit for its intended use.

e.Limit State method Ultimate Limit State (ULS) • In which the structure. or some part of it.g compressive tensile. shear or flexure failure or instability leading to partial or total collapse. Serviceability Limit State (SLS) • In which a condition. vibration or cracking.g deflection. . is unsafe for its intended purpose. • Present a direct risk to the safety of individuals. occurs to an extent. causing discomfort to the occupants. e. •Not resulting in a direct risk to the safety of people but the structure unsuitable for its intended purpose.

Characteristic Strength (N/mm2) fcu 25 30 35 40 45 C50 50 . fcu is a 28 day Concrete Grade C25 C30 C35 C40 C45 characteristic compressive cube strength.Material Properties:  Characteristic Strength of Concrete. the value as below.

 Characteristic Strength of reinforcement fy is the yield or proof stress. Reinforcement Type Characteristic Strength (N/mm2) fy 250 460 Hot Rolled Mild steel High Yield Steel .

fk (fcu or fy) are divided by an appropriate partial safety factor for strength. Design Strength = fk / γm .Design Strength In order to take account of the .  local weaknesses.  difference between actual and laboratory values.γm . and  inaccuracies in the assessment of the resistance of sections the Characteristic Strengths.

05 Concrete .Shear.5 .5 1. γm 1.other e.25 1.Partial safety factors for Strength of Material Material and Stress type Reinforcement Concrete .4 >1.Flexure or Axial Load Concrete . bearing Partial Safety Factor. unreinforced Concrete .

equipment and traffic. the self-weight of all permanent construction such as beams. walls.e.Loads due to variable effects such as the movement of people.Loading Characteristic Loads  Gk. floors.Loads due to effects of gravity. . columns. furniture. Dead load . Imposed Load . i. roofs and finishes.  Qk.

 BS 648:Schedule of Weights for Building Materials  BS 6399: Design Loadings for Buildings. wind speed and direction. building dimension.Loads is variable and its source is outwith human control. . Its influence on a geographical location. and etc. Part 1: Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed loads are useful documents in which to find values to be used in calculations.Characteristic Loads  Wk. Wind Load .

γf .Design Loads In order to account for Variation in Loads due to:  Errors in the analysis and Design  Constructional inaccuracies  Possible load increases The Characteristic Loads Fk are multiplied by the appropriate partial safety factor for loads. γf to give the Design Loads acting on the structure Design Load = Fk .

Wk 1.4 1. Gk Dead + Imposed Dead + Wind 1.4 Ultimate Imposed Load. Gk. Elastic analyses then allow the determination of maximum BM’s and Shears for which sections must be capable of sustaining.0 Dead + Wind + Imposed 1.4 Serviceability All.2 1. .Load Combination Dead Load. Wk 1.2 1.0 Generally the adverse factors are used to determine the design loads acting on a structure.0 1. Qk 1. Qk.6 Wind Load.2 1.

0.002 Approx.Stress-Strain Curves Stress-Strain Curve for Concrete A typical curve for concrete is shown below: Approx. 0.002 .

BS 8110 makes use of a modified stress-strain curve as shown .

DURABILITY & FIRE RESISTANCE As well as the need to design structures to withstand the applied loads due consideration must be given to both durability and fire resistance. In fact it can be seen that the design of an element can not begin without considering these factors in some way. .

Ex’s...Durability Signs of concrete deterioration are nowadays far too common. Improved durability is therefore paramount. Repair can be very costly and difficult.. How can this be achieved:  cover to reinforcement  minimum cement content  maximum water/cement ratio  maximum crack widths ..

Note linkage with Max.The table gives nominal (min+5) depths of cover to be used for a variety of exposure conditions. cement content and concrete grade . water/cement ratio. Min.

Fire Protection Fire protection of reinforced concrete members is largely achieved by specifying limits for:  Cover to reinforcement  minimum dimensions for section .

This table shows the nominal cover to ALL reinforcement to meet the specified period of fire resistance .

In addition to cover we must also consider minimum section dimensions which vary depending upon the element considered and it’s location as indicated(BS8110): .

Minimum dimensions of reinforced concrete members for fire resistance .