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Historical Origins of Criminal Investigation

Chapter 1

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Overview

The Evolution of the Detective Development of Criminalistics Legal Influences on the Development of Criminal Investigation Review Questions Opportunity for Student Questions

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Learning Objectives

Understand historical evolution Appreciate the relationship of European and American origins of criminal investigation Comprehend the concept of thief-catching Account for similarities and differences of early American investigators and European counterparts Familiarize with American investigators who were instrumental to the development of present-day investigation Comprehend the development of forensic science List prominent European and American criminalists Understand the importance of legal influences on the development of criminal investigation
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

The Evolution of the Detective: European Origins

Law enforcement efforts evolved over centuries


Frank-pledge system (middle ages) Tithings subgroups of ten families Watches government and merchant-financed patrols (through the seventeenth century) Parliamentary Reward System (abolished in 1818) Thief-taking (early 1700s)

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

The Evolution of the Detective: European Origins Develop p6

The English Detective: The Bow Street Runners (1748) Sir Robert Peel
Known as the father of modern policing Instrumental in the creation of the Metropolitan Police Act which created the London Metropolitan Police (Scotland Yard) in 1829

In 1877, Scotland Yard created the Criminal Investigation Department


PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Peels Principles of Police

The Police must be stable, efficient and organized along military lines. The Police must be under government control. The absence of crime will best prove the efficiency of Police. The distribution of crime news is essential.
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Peels Principles Contd.

The deployment of Police strength by time and area is essential. No quality is more indispensable to Police than a perfect command of temper: a quiet, determined manner has more effect than violent action. Good appearance commands respect.
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Peels Principles Contd.

The securing of training of proper persons is at the root of efficiency. Public security demands that every officer be given a number. Police Headquarters should be centrally located and be easily accessible to the people.
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Peels Principles Contd.

Policemen should be hired on a probationary basis. Police records are necessary to the correct distribution of Police strength.

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

The Evolution of the Detective: U.S. Origins

p8

Growth in the U.S. parallels Europe


Volunteer night watches began in 1636 Daytime paid police patrols began in 1830s Northern states differed in development from southern states Local mayors often personally administered punishment

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

The Evolution of the Detective: U.S. Origins Develop


1849 marks the first detective in Chicago Plainclothes detectives became very popular and were a rapid development in comparison to European use of investigators In Europe it was felt that the use of informants was beneath the Police dignity. By the 1890s, nearly all heavily populated U.S. cities had full-time detectives

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Who Was Alan Pinkerton?


Americas foremost detective Known as

p11

Americas Founder of Criminal Investigation

First detective of the Chicago Police Department in 1849 Opened a private detective agency in the early 1850sthe North-Western Police Agency
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Criminal Investigation on the Federal Level p13

Congress created the office of the attorney general in 1789 Until 1865, most federal investigations were contracted out to private detectives From 1865 1870 the federal government created:
U.S. Secret Service Internal Revenue Service Custom Service Department of Justice

FBI created in 1909 but wasnt organized until 1924 by J. Edgar Hoover
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

The Federal Bureau of Investigation p13

Significant contributions to the overall development of criminal investigation Created a national identification file in Washington D.C. Uniform Crime Reports Bulletin (Index Crimes tracked) Crime laboratories Leaders in investigative competence
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Development of Criminalistics

p14

Prior to the 1900s, investigations relied mostly upon interactions of people


Informants Interviews Interrogations

Forensic science now has a prominent role in almost all criminal investigations
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

What is Forensic Science? p14

The application of natural science to the detection of crime


Chemistry Physics Biology Mathematics

Scientifically trained investigators function as a liaison between specialized scientists and police officials There are over 300 public crime labs in the U.S. today
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Organization of a State Crime Lab (Based on WI Crime Lab)


Scientific analysis of physical evidence is conducted by 10 or 11 specialized units grouped into three sections. (A brief description of the areas of analysis for each unit is listed below.)

Chemistry

Criminalistics

Drug Identification Toxicology Trace Firearm/Toolmark Identification Forensic Imaging Questioned Document Field Response AFIS

DNA Analysis

DNA Databank DNA Analysis

Information obtained from: http://www.doj.state.wi.us/dles/crimelabs/analysis.asp

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Alphonse Bertillon: Founder of Criminal Identification

Bertillon

p15

Recognized, in 1879, the shortfalls of existing methods of identifying criminals Created a new system called anthropometry, adopted in 1882

Human body measured in 11 critical places Color of eyes, hair, and skin System was 4,194,304 to 1 accurate Adopted by police departments in Europe and the U.S. for more than 20 years
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Alphonse Bertillon: Founder of Criminal Identification


Continued

Bertillon
Credited with the mug shot Developed the famous portrait parle Instrumental in the science of fingerprintingfirst expert in Europe to solve a murder case solely by means of fingerprint evidence Died in 1914; known today for being instrumental for the inclusion of science and record-keeping in police identification

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Other Contributors to Criminalistics p19

Juan Vucetich
Fingerprint classification

Francis Galton
Dactylography (Fingerprint Identification)

Edward Richard Henry


Devised a fingerprint classification system

Arthur Conan Doyle


Wrote fiction depicting Sherlock Holmes

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Other Contributors to Criminalistics

Karl Landsteiner
Agglutination of human blood (blood types)

Calvin H. Goddard
Forensic ballistics

Hans Gross
Wrote field handbook for criminal investigation

Robert Heindl
Witness perception and reliability he wrote a book that classified tire patterns

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Other Contributors to Criminalistics

Edmond Locard
Founded the Institute of Criminalistics Coined Every contact leaves a trace

Rudolph Reiss
Forensic photography

Harry Soderman
Wrote Modern Criminal Investigation

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Other Contributors to Criminalistics

August Vollmer
Concepts in police organization and administration Supervised Larson in developing the polygraph

Paul L. Kirk
Founded crime labs in Chicago and St. Louis Wrote Crime Investigation: Physical Evidence and

the Police Laboratory

Alec Jeffreys
Discovered DNA profiling
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Legal Influences on the Development of Criminal Investigation p26

Criminal investigation is strictly governed by the law Investigators must be aware of the legal guidelines Important constitutional issues are found in:
The Bill of Rights The 14th Amendment

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Relationship to Feds!!

The Congress abhorred in anything that appeared to be a strong central government. Still 13 independent countries Had to have protection FROM government

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

The Bill of Rights

The first ten amendments to the Constitution Guarantee personal rights Particular importance to criminal investigation include the:
Fourth Amendment search and seizure Fifth Amendment obtaining information and confessions Sixth Amendment assistance of counsel

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

The Fourth Amendment


The right of the people to be secure in their person, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

The Fourth Amendment:


Affecting Criminal Investigations

The exclusionary rule states that evidence obtained as a result of unreasonable searches and seizures may not be admitted into federal court Rule was made applicable to state criminal courts by the U.S. Supreme Court in the case Mapp v. Ohio
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

Famous Constitutional Court Cases

Mapp v. Ohio (exclusionary rule is applied to


state courts)

Escobedo v. Illinois (when the investigation

shifts to accusatory, the suspect is allowed an attorney) Miranda v. Arizona (when a suspect is interrogated while in custody, he or she must be advised of their constitutional rights or any statements obtained are inadmissible)
PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

EXCEPTIONS

Public Safety Exigent circumstances Inevitable discovery Good Faith

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

EXCEPTIONS Contd.

http://www.quizlaw.com/criminal_law/ are_there_exceptions_to_the_ex.php Probable Cause

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Exclusionary Rule

Weeks v. US. Mapp v. Ohio Escobedo v. Illinois Miranda v. Arizona

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Review Questions
Explain the importance that Sir Robert Peel had on modern policing. 2. Who was Alan Pinkerton? 3. Describe the role of the FBI. 4. Define criminalistics. 5. What is forensic science? 6. Explain the Criminal Investigation, 7 Edition By James N. Gilbert importance of the
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Historical Origins of Criminal Investigation

Chapter 1

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458

Student Questions

Criminal Investigation, 7th Edition By James N. Gilbert

PRENTICE HALL 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458