 Time

deixis makes ultimate reference to participant-role.  It is important to distinguish the moment of utterance or Coding Time (CT) from the moment of reception or Receiving Time (RT)  There are a number of aspects of ‘pure’ time deixis, where there is no direct interaction with non-deictic methods of time reckoning.  These include Tense, and the deictic time adverbs like now, then, soon, recently, and so on.

To point within the relevant span.g: Dennis hit Murphy with a baseball bat yesterday. there are two kinds of referent: 1. 2.Examples:  1. I’m now working on a PhD. (Interminable period) Fillmore (1975) notes. e. e. Pull the trigger now! (Gestural use)  2. .g: Tomorrow is Wednesday. Refers to the entire span itself.

etc. These consist of a deictic modifier. next year.Further aspects of the interaction of calendrical reckoning and time deixis arise when we consider complex time adverbials like Last Monday. Together with a non-deictic name or measure word. or this afternoon. this. next. . last.

months. Non-calendrical modes of reckoning b) T he distinction between common noun units like weeks. and perhaps afternoon. and proper name units. years. December. like Monday. which cannot be used as measures. . The interpretation of adverbials in English is systematically determined by: a) The calendrical vs.

 It concerns the specifications of locations relative to anchorage points in the speech event.  Location can be specified relative to other objects or reference points. .  It’s two hundred yards away. as in:  The station is two hundred yards from the cathedral. o It can be specified relative to the location of the participant at the time speaking.

1. We’re there. stretching away from the speaker’s location. Bring that here and take this there. Place it here. such as the adverbs here and there. There are some pure place deictic words.  Examples: 1. How are things there? 2. and the demonstrative pronouns this and that. . The adverbs here and there are often thought of a simple contrasts on a proximal distal dimension. 2.

The distinction between discourse deixis and anaphora: Anaphora: concerns the use of (usually) a pronoun to refer to the same referent as some prior term.g: Harry’s a sweetheart. (Harry and he can be said to co-referential. e. It has the same referent) . he’s so considerate.It concerns the use of expressions within some utterance to refer to some portion of the discourse that contains that utterance (including the utterance itself).

the beast itself. . e. but to the word rhinoceros. It is not doing duty for a use of rhinoceros but rather for a mention of it.g: A: That’s a rhinoceros B: Spell it for me It refers not to the referent.Discourse deixis: a pronoun refers to a linguistic expression (or chunck of discourse) itself.