HVDC Transmission System

Electrical Engineering Seminar
September 2, 2008
14.00-16.00 Hrs. Faculty of Engineering
King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok



Presented by
Nitus Voraphonpiput, Ph.D.
Engineer Level 8
Technical Analysis – Foreign Power Purchase Agreement Branch
Power Purchase Agreement Division
Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand
2
Aims
 To introduce basic concept of the
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)
transmission systems.
 To present applications and
technologies of the High Voltage
Direct Current (HVDC) transmission
systems.

3
Content
 Introduction
 Why uses HVDC?
 Applications of HVDC
 Future Trends
 Conclusion

Introduction
5
 Power transmission was started in the early
1880s using direct current (DC).

 With the development of transformers, induction
motors and synchronous generators, the DC
transmission systems were replaced by AC
Transmission system.

 Nowadays, due to successful development of
HV converters (rectifiers and inverters) based on
Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR), the High
Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission
systems become an economic and attractive
technology.
Introduction
6
 HVDC is the abbreviation of High Voltage
Direct Current.

Beginning of HVDC Transmission System
 Marcel Deprez put his experiment (1881) to
practice in 1882. a 1.5 kW at 2 kV over a
distance of 35 miles was operated.
 In 1889, R. Thury continued the D. Marcel work,
he used DC generators connected in series to
generate high voltage and sent 20 MW at 125
kV over a distance of 230 km (Moutiers-Lyon) in
France.

7
Part I: Mercury Arc Valve

 The first commercial HVDC in Europe was Gotland in Sweden
(1954).
 Cross Channel -1961; 160 MW, 64 km cable between England
and France (ASEA)
 Volgorod – Donbass - 1965; 720 MW, 470 km in Russia
 Sardinia; 1967; 200 MW, 413 km between Sardinia and Italian
mainland (GEC England)
 New Zealand – 1965; 600 MW between the south and north
islands (ASEA)
 Konti-Scan I – 1965; 250 MW, 180 km between Sweden and
Denmark (ASEA)
 Sakuma - 1965; 300 MW frequency converter in Japan (ASEA)
 Vancouver I - 1968; 312 MW, 69 km between BC and Vancouver
island (ASEA)
 Pacific HVDC Inter-tie – 1970; 1440 WM, 1362 km overhead line
between Oregon and Los Angeles (JV between ASEA and GE)
8
Part II: Thyristor Valve

 Gotland Extension – 1970; Adding 50kV and 10 MW to the
Gotland scheme using thyristors (ASEA)
 Eel River – 1972; 320MW first all thyristor asynchronous link in
Canada (GE)
 ……………………..(more than ten projects)………….
 Haenam-Cheju – 1993; +/- 180 kV, 300 MW, south Korea
(English Electric)
 Baltic Cable Project – 1994; 450 kV and 600 MW (Sweden
Germany)
 Kontek HVDC Interconnection - 1995; 400 kV, 600 MW, Denmark
 Scotland-N.Ireland – 1996; 250 kV and 250 MW
 Leyte-Luzum -1997; 400 kV; 1600 MW; 440 km, Philippines.
 Chandrapur-Padghe – 1997; +/- 500 kV; 1500 MW; 900 km, India
 Greece-Italy – 1997; 500 kV
 EGAT-TNB – 2001; 300kV and 300 MW, 110 km thyristors
(Siemens)
 ………
9

Main components of a HVDC transmission
Cooling
system
10
Main components of a HVDC transmission

 Converter stations connected to the AC bus via
transformers.
 Two-winding or three-winding transformers, in which
a 30 degrees phase shift is required between the
converter units because of the 12-pulse connection
selection of vector groups.
 The on-load tap changer of the transformer
 Filters and capacitor banks.
 Converter bridges, usually two six-pulse bridges in
series, equipped with controls of their own enables
independent operation
 Cooling system
11
Main components of a HVDC transmission

 Firing pulses of the thyristors are usually passed via
optical fibers.
 Control system.
 Smoothing inductors (act as filters harmonics in DC
and limits the rate of current change.)
 DC Filters (on overhead lines).
 A cable or an overhead line as a transmission path
for the current passing through sea or earth, also
electrodes are required.
12
6-pulse Bridge Circuit
Thyristor valve
Components of the thyristor
modules
13
A Thyristor
valve
Thyristor
Module
2x 6-bridge
Symbol
Thyristor valves
EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV
14
Y
Y
A
Converter Transformers
Transformer
EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV
Converter Transformers
15
Switchyard, Capacitor Banks and AC Filters DC Tower and DC Line
EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV
16
Smooth Inductor
(smoothing reactor)
DC Active Filter
EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV
17

HVDC Transmission System (electrical system)
18
Electric Power Transmission
R
U U
P
d d 2
2
1
12
÷
=
HVAC
HVDC
jX
R
E
S
E
R
U
d1
U
d2
( )
( )
R S
R S S
R S
R S
X
E E E
Q
X
E E
P
o o
o o
÷
÷
=
÷ =
cos
sin
2
12
12
19
( ) I U P
I U P
R
U U
I
d
d
d d
÷ =
=
÷
=
.
.
2 2
1 1
2 1
Rectifier Inverter
+ U
R
-
AC
system
AC
system
Electric Power Transmission using HVDC
20
( ) MW A kV P
MW A kV P
A
kV kV kV
I
290 1000 . 290
300 1000 . 300
1000
10
10
10
290 300
2
1
÷ = ÷ =
= =
=
O
=
O
÷
=
( ) MW A kV P
MW A kV P
A
kV kV kV
I
580 2000 . 290
600 2000 . 310
2000
10
20
10
290 310
2
1
÷ = ÷ =
= =
=
O
=
O
÷
=
( ) ( )
( ) MW A kV P
MW A kV P
A
kV kV kV
I
300 1000 ). 300 (
290 1000 ). 290 (
1000
10
10
10
300 290
2
1
= ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
=
O
=
O
÷ ÷ ÷
=
Electric Power Transmission using HVDC
21
Converter Operation
Voltage and current waveform of HVDC converters
22
30°
V
I.cos|
I
I.sin|

  
30
866 . 0
2
) 25 15 cos( 15 cos
2
) cos( cos
cos
~
=
+ +
~
+ +
~
|
µ o o
|
Rectifier Operation of the 6-pulse bridge
converter
Assume o = 15° and µ = 25°
The converter operates in rectifier
mode. It transmits active power
while consumes reactive power.
Converter Operation
23
145°
V I.cos|
I
I.sin|

  
145
823 . 0
2
) 25 135 cos( 135 cos
2
) cos( cos
cos
~
=
+ +
~
+ +
~
|
µ o o
|
Inverter operation of the 6-pulse
bridge converter
Assume o = 135° and µ = 25°
The converter operates in inverter
mode. It receives active power while
consumes reactive power.
Converter Operation
24
 Alternatives for the implementation of a HVDC
transmission system

i) Mono-polar Configuration
ii) Bipolar Configuration
a) Earth Return
b) Metallic Return
iii) Homo-polar Configuration
25
 Alternatives for the implementation of a HVDC
transmission system (continued)

26
This configuration can be
found as early as 1954, there
was no interest in its
commercial use until the 1990s
because the control and
protection equirements were
considered to be excessively
complex.
The first commercial
application, taken into full
service in June 2000, is a 1100
MW asynchronous back-to-
back link between Argentina
and Brazil
Source: Alstom
Capacitor Commutated Converter HVDC (CCC-HVDC)
Why uses HVDC?
28
Why uses HVDC?
The reasons that HVDC have been used
are:
1. An overhead DC transmission line with its
towers can be designed to be less costly per
unit of length.
2. It is not practical to consider AC cable
systems exceeding 50 km (due to capacitive
current charging of the cable).
3. Some AC electric power systems are not
synchronized to neighboring networks even
though their physical distances between
them is quite small.
(Interconnection problem)
29
 Less cost/unit length
Source: Siemens and Jos Arrillaga’s book (1998)
30
300 km 300 km 300 km
900 km
HVDC
HVAC
 Less cost/unit length
31 Source: ABB
 Less cost/unit length
32
System Modeling for Line Loadability
Line model
Source: EPRI
 Limitation of AC transmission line
33
Typical values of SIL
for overhead transmission lines
Rated
voltage
[kV]
Thermal
Limit [MW]
SIL
[MW]
230 400 135-145
345 1,200 325-425
500 2,600 850-1075
765 5,400 2,200-2,300
1100 24,000 5,200
Note: No series or shunt compensation
Constant line
voltage drop 5%
Steady state stability
limit (30% margin)
Source: EPRI
Thermal Limit
HVDC can utilize line up to
thermal limit.
 Limitation of AC transmission line
34
 Limitation of AC cable
General AC Cable Technologies
 Pipe-type
 Coated and protected steel pipe houses the cable
and dielectric fluid
 Dielectric fluid is maintained under pressure
 Insulation material is Kraft paper or laminated
paper-polypropylene
 Self-contained, fluid-filled (SCFF)
 Insulation impregnate is a low viscosity liquid
which must be maintained under pressure
internally
 Conductor has central fluid duct
 Extruded cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)
 Solid dielectric insulation, no fluid, no pressurizing
plant
 Limited applications above 230 kV to date
Source: ABB
35
1.SCFF for AC or DC 2.MI for DC
3.Single-core XLPE for AC 4.Three-core XLPE for
5.Extruded HVDC Light for DC 6.Extruded HVDC Light for DC
Source: ABB
36
Source: ABB
 Limitation of AC cables
37
Source: ABB
HVDC can utilize cable up to thermal limit.
 Limitation of AC cables
38
 Limitation of AC Interconnection

 It is impossible to connect two (or more)
different system frequencies via HVAC.

 Without control center to take care off whole
system frequency, it is impossible to connect
two (or more) systems through HVAC event
their system frequencies are equal.

 Difficult to control power flow between areas
without special equipment such as phase
shifting transformer.
But HVDC can overcome these problems.
Applications of
HVDC
40
Applications of HVDC
41
Emergency Frequency Control
When a large generator is
tripped, the system frequency falls down
over an acceptable level.
HVDC can rapidly increase or
reverse power flow direction to
compensate unbalance active power to
recover system frequency.
42
Automatic Frequency Control
When you require to improve frequency deviation in normal
operation and after large disturbances, application of Automatic
Frequency Control (AFC) function is recommended.
Source TMT&D, Japan
43
Power Swing Damping Control
The modulation control of the DC power improves power
swing stability and effectively dampes power oscillations. (this
function is not limited for HVDC–HVAC line in parallel, but also
applies to HVDC linked between two AC networks.)
Source TMT&D, Japan
44
Starting Up the Generator
When an HVDC system is connected to the isolated
generator at the sending end, the system has to be started up in
coordination with the governor action of the generator. The bipoler
operation is available, overall transmitted power can be built up
smoothly from zero to the rated value by having two poles transmit
power in opposite directions.
Source TMT&D, Japan
45
Usage of HVDC in USA (same frequency)
46
Usage of HVDC in Japan (two different system frequencies)
Source: Toshiba
47
Usage of HVDC in India.
48
Usage of HVDC in China
49
 Itaipu, Brazil
Brazil decided to build a HVDC transmission system from
Itaipuhydro power plant to SãoPaulo to meet the rapidly growing
power demand in 1978. A 3150+3150 MW ±600 kV HVDC power link
between Itaipu and SãoPaulo brings power generated at 50 Hz (in
Itaipuhydropower plant) to the 60 Hz network in SãoPaulo. This project
was commissioned in 1984-1987.
50
 Québec -New England, Canada -US
This project was commissioned in 1990-1992. It is a 2000 MW
±450 kV multi-terminal HVDC power link.
The HVDC multi-terminal system brings power from La
Grande II hydro power station to loads in Montreal, Québec, Canada
and to Boston, Massachusetts, USA
51
 Baltic Cable, Sweden -Germany
A 600 MW 450 kV HVDC sea cable system links between
Germany and Sweden to enable further integrate power systems of
the Baltic Sea region. This project was commissioned in 1997 and it
is an economic exchange between a thermal power system and a
hydro/nuclear power system
52
 Brazil -Argentina Interconnection
This project links Argentina (50 Hz) and Brazil (60 Hz) to utilize
their electricity resources more efficiently and cost effectively.
It providers import and export power to take advantage of
peaks demand between Brazil’s and Argentina’s asynchronous
networks. It is a CCC-HVDC (2200 MW 140 kV (±70 kV) back-to-back
system).
53
HVDC has been integrated. Because of long transmission
lines, the AC system experiences severe power oscillations after
systems faults, close to the stability limits. In first case, HVDC is
transmitting power in constant power mode (curve a). ,the power
oscillations occur. With daming control of HVDC, the oscillations are
damped very effectively (curve b). Without HVDC, e.g. with a fully
synchronous interconnection, such a large power system would be
unstable in case of fault contingencies, thus leading to blackout.
 HVDC GuiGuang, China
54
 Hokkaido-Honsyu HVDC (Japan)
Source: Toshiba
55
 EGAT-TNB HVDC, Thailand
In 2003, a mono-polar 300 MW 300 kV HVDC transmission system
was installed between Thailand and Malaysia. This HVDC offers an
important option in economic operation of the Thailand power system. It
transfers economical energy between two countries. This HVDC provides
four enhanced stability functions for AC system. One of these is Power
Swing Damping (PSD) function. This function was designed to damp inter-
area oscillation on the tie transmission line linking Central system and
Southern system.
56
January 13, 2005, TNB experienced the separated system event
between the Northern part and the Southern part. It resulted in over-frequency
in the Northern part and low frequency in the Southern part due to over
generation (in north) and lower generation (in south) respectively. Frequency
Limit Control (FLC) function of the HVDC increased power into EGAT system
from 300 MW to 406 MW to stabilize frequency in TNB system.
TNB frequency
DC Power to EGAT
K ua h
M e la k a
Se re m ba n
Ge org e t own
K ot a
B ha ru
K u al a
T e re n g ga n u
Ip oh
K u an t a n
S ha h
A l a m
A lo r
Se t a r
K a n ga r
JOHOR
PAHANG
MELAKA
NEGERI SEMBILAN
SELANGOR
PERAK
KEDAH
PULAU PINANG
KELANTAN
TERENGGANU
PERLIS
WILAYAH
PERSEKUTUAN
L A N GKA W I
M E L A KA
B ER S IA
K EN E R IN G
T E M E N G OR
K EN Y I R
SG PI A H U P PE R
S G P IA H LO W E R
J O R
W OH
O D A K
C HE N DE R OH
P E R GA U
MAIN G RID IN
PENINSULAR MALAYSIA
S
T
R
A
I
T
S

O
F

M
E
L
A
K
A
S
O
U
T
H

C
H
I
N
A

S
E
A
N
Lege nd
H y dro Po we r St a t i on
Th e rm a l P owe r St a t i on
St a t e Ca p it a l
Ex is t in g Pl a nn e d
5 0 0 k V Ov e rh ea d L in e
2 7 5 k V Ov e rh ea d L in e
2 7 5 k V C ab le
J o ho r
B a h ru
P RA I
GE L UGO R
S E GA R I
CON NA U GHT
B RI D GE
S E RD A NG
KA P AR
P OWE R T E K
P D
P OWE R
GE N T I NG
S AN Y E N
P ORT
D I C KS ON
Y T L
P A S I R
GUD A NG
P A KA
Y T L
Ay e r Ta wa r
B a t u Ga j a h
P ap a n
Ku a la K a ng s a r
Bu k it Ta m bu n
J u n ju ng
B uk it T en ga h
Gu run
B e do ng
K ot a Set ar
C hu pi ng
B uk i t T ar ek
K L ( N )
KL ( E )
H ic om G
K L ( S )
S a la k T in gg i
M el a k a
K g A wa h
Sc u da i
T el ok Ka lo ng
T an a h Me ra h
JA NA M AN JU NG
Ma jo r T N B Su bs t a t i on
Y A N
Y on g Pe ng ( N )
B u k it B a t u
S ed il i
L e ng ge n g
Yo ng Pe n g ( E)
3 0 0 k V H VD C L in e
 EGAT-TNB HVDC, Malaysia
Future Trends
58
Source: ABB
59
 Voltage-sourced converter based HVDC
systems are called HVDC Light (ABB) or
HVDC Plus (Siemens) become new trend of
HVDC due to
 Converters do not require reactive power.
 Suitable both for submarine and land cable
connections.
 Advanced system features.
 Small footprint (e.g. 550 MW): 120 x 50 x 11 meters.
 Black Start Capability
 Short delivery time.

60
 Voltage-sourced converters (VSC) operate
with a smooth dc voltage provided by a
storage capacitor. The fast switching
capability of the IGBT allows to create a
pulse width modulated (PWM) AC voltage.

 The converter can operate in 4 quadrants of the
active power and reactive power plane.
 The commutation does not depend on the ac
network voltage. Thus it can connect to very weak
power systems.
 The ac output voltage of the converter can be
changed extremely quickly.
61
 However, the voltage and power ratings of
IGBTs are as yet far below those of
thyristors and so applications with voltage-
sourced converters are limited to low and
medium power.
 The first commercial project was once more
commissioned on Gotland and taken into service in
November 1999. A power of 50 MW is transferred
through two underground cables of 70 km length at
a voltage level of ±80 kV from the south of the
island to the north.
 A similar installation (3X60 MW, ±80 kV) was
commissioned and brought into operation in 2000
to connect the grids of Queensland and New South
Wales, Australia.
62
Power rating of
Switching devices
Source: ABB
63
Source: ABB
64
Source: ABB
65 Source: Siemens
Conclusion
67
 Advantages of HVDC
 DC lines can be loaded up to
the thermal limit.
 Power flow control.
 Does not increase the short-
circuit currents in the AC
network.
 No capacitive charging
current on DC lines.
 Ground or sea can be used
as a return conductor.
 Fast control of power and
stabilizing of AC system.
 N-1 criteria may not be
required.
 Economic for long
transmission line and bulk
energy.
 Interconnection between two
AC systems is possible.
 Disadvantages of HVDC
Electric Field can cause a
problem to human.
Converter stations are
expensive and complex
arrangements when
compared with the stations
in an AC system.
Conventional Converters
(rectifier and inverter)
require reactive power.
Converters produce
harmonics both in the AC
network and the DC side.
In mono-polar links, the
return current passing
through ground causes
corrosion in metal objects.
Sensitive to fault in AC
network near converter.

68
Long
distance
over land
Long
distance
over sea
Inter-
connection
asynchronous
network
Wind
Turbine
connection
to network
Feed
a small
isolated
loads
HVDC
+ OH line
 
HVDC
+ Cable
 
CCC
B2B

CCC
+OH line
 
CCC
+ Cable
 
VSC
B2B
 
VSC
+ Cable
    
69
 In emerging countries, power systems will
grow (very) fast. Because of reliability and
economic reasons. HVDC will play a
significant role in the future (such as China
and Indian).
 Conventional HVDC still uses in power
system. It is a proven technology.
 In future, VSC-HVDC and polyethylene DC
cables will made
 Economic at lower power levels (down to 200 MW)
 Economic at short distance (60 km).
70
Thank you

ขอบคุ ณครับ

Questions and discussions are very welcome.

Aims
 To

introduce basic concept of the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems.  To present applications and technologies of the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems.
2

Content
 Introduction  Why

uses HVDC?  Applications of HVDC  Future Trends  Conclusion

3

Introduction .

the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems become an economic and attractive technology. induction motors and synchronous generators. 5 .   Nowadays. the DC transmission systems were replaced by AC Transmission system. due to successful development of HV converters (rectifiers and inverters) based on Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR).Introduction  Power transmission was started in the early 1880s using direct current (DC). With the development of transformers.

5 kW at 2 kV over a distance of 35 miles was operated. HVDC is the abbreviation of High Voltage Direct Current. he used DC generators connected in series to generate high voltage and sent 20 MW at 125 kV over a distance of 230 km (Moutiers-Lyon) in France. R. Marcel work. a 1. Thury continued the D. 6 . Beginning of HVDC Transmission System   Marcel Deprez put his experiment (1881) to practice in 1882. In 1889.

1965. 160 MW.1965. 300 MW frequency converter in Japan (ASEA) Vancouver I . 1362 km overhead line between Oregon and Los Angeles (JV between ASEA and GE) 7 . Cross Channel -1961.1968.Part I: Mercury Arc Valve          The first commercial HVDC in Europe was Gotland in Sweden (1954). 413 km between Sardinia and Italian mainland (GEC England) New Zealand – 1965. 180 km between Sweden and Denmark (ASEA) Sakuma . 69 km between BC and Vancouver island (ASEA) Pacific HVDC Inter-tie – 1970. 250 MW. 470 km in Russia Sardinia. 312 MW. 1440 WM. 600 MW between the south and north islands (ASEA) Konti-Scan I – 1965. 720 MW. 1967. 64 km cable between England and France (ASEA) Volgorod – Donbass . 200 MW.

Haenam-Cheju – 1993. 440 km. 300 MW.. 500 kV EGAT-TNB – 2001. Denmark Scotland-N. Philippines.Ireland – 1996.500 kV. +/. 110 km thyristors (Siemens) ……… 8 . 400 kV. south Korea (English Electric) Baltic Cable Project – 1994. Adding 50kV and 10 MW to the Gotland scheme using thyristors (ASEA) Eel River – 1972. +/.(more than ten projects)…………. Chandrapur-Padghe – 1997.180 kV. 600 MW.Part II: Thyristor Valve             Gotland Extension – 1970. 1500 MW. 1600 MW. 400 kV. 900 km.1995. 320MW first all thyristor asynchronous link in Canada (GE) ……………………. 300kV and 300 MW. India Greece-Italy – 1997. 250 kV and 250 MW Leyte-Luzum -1997. 450 kV and 600 MW (Sweden Germany) Kontek HVDC Interconnection .

Main components of a HVDC transmission Cooling system 9 .

usually two six-pulse bridges in series. in which a 30 degrees phase shift is required between the converter units because of the 12-pulse connection selection of vector groups. Two-winding or three-winding transformers. Converter bridges. equipped with controls of their own enables independent operation Cooling system 10 . The on-load tap changer of the transformer Filters and capacitor banks.Main components of a HVDC transmission       Converter stations connected to the AC bus via transformers.

A cable or an overhead line as a transmission path for the current passing through sea or earth. also electrodes are required. Control system.) DC Filters (on overhead lines). Smoothing inductors (act as filters harmonics in DC and limits the rate of current change. 11 .Main components of a HVDC transmission      Firing pulses of the thyristors are usually passed via optical fibers.

6-pulse Bridge Circuit Thyristor valve Components of the thyristor modules 12 .

Thyristor valves Thyristor Module A Thyristor valve Symbol EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV 2x 6-bridge 13 .

Converter Transformers  Y Y Transformer Converter Transformers EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV 14 .

Switchyard. Capacitor Banks and AC Filters EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV DC Tower and DC Line 15 .

Smooth Inductor (smoothing reactor) EGAT-TNB HVDC 300 MW 300 kV DC Active Filter 16 .

HVDC Transmission System (electrical system) 17 .

Electric Power Transmission

HVAC
ES

HVDC
ER Ud1 R Ud2

jX

E E P  S R sin  S   R  12 X 2 ES  ES E R Q12  cos S   R  X

2 U d1  U d 2 P  12 R

18

Electric Power Transmission using HVDC
+ Rectifier UR Inverter

AC system

U d1  U d 2 I R P  U d 1.I 1

AC system

P2  U d 2 . I 
19

Electric Power Transmission using HVDC
300 kV  290 kV 10 kV   1000 A 10  10  P  300 kV.1000 A  300 MW 1 I P2  290 kV.  1000 A  290 MW

310 kV  290 kV 20 kV   2000 A 10  10  P  310 kV. 2000 A  600 MW 1 I P2  290 kV.  2000 A  580 MW

I

10  10  P  (290 kV ).1000 A  290 MW 1

 290 kV    300 kV   10 kV  1000 A

P2  (300 kV ). 1000 A  300 MW

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Converter Operation Voltage and current waveform of HVDC converters 21 .

sin 30 I The converter operates in rectifier mode. 22 .Converter Operation Rectifier Operation of the 6-pulse bridge converter Assume  = 15 and  = 25 cos  cos  cos(   )  2 cos15  cos(   25 ) 15   0.866 2   30 I.cos V I. It transmits active power while consumes reactive power.

23 I .Converter Operation Inverter operation of the 6-pulse bridge converter Assume  = 135 and  = 25 cos  cos(   ) cos  2 cos135  cos(   25 ) 135   0. It receives active power while consumes reactive power.sin The converter operates in inverter mode.823 2   145 V I.cos 145 I.

 Alternatives for the implementation of a HVDC transmission system a) Earth Return ii) Bipolar Configuration b) Metallic Return i) Mono-polar Configuration iii) Homo-polar Configuration 24 .

 Alternatives for the implementation of a HVDC transmission system (continued) 25 .

The first commercial application. is a 1100 MW asynchronous back-toback link between Argentina and Brazil Source: Alstom 26 .Capacitor Commutated Converter HVDC (CCC-HVDC) This configuration can be found as early as 1954. there was no interest in its commercial use until the 1990s because the control and protection equirements were considered to be excessively complex. taken into full service in June 2000.

Why uses HVDC? .

(Interconnection problem) 28 . An overhead DC transmission line with its towers can be designed to be less costly per unit of length. Some AC electric power systems are not synchronized to neighboring networks even though their physical distances between them is quite small.Why uses HVDC? The reasons that HVDC have been used are: 1. 3. 2. It is not practical to consider AC cable systems exceeding 50 km (due to capacitive current charging of the cable).

 Less cost/unit length Source: Siemens and Jos Arrillaga’s book (1998) 29 .

 Less cost/unit length HVDC 900 km HVAC 300 km 300 km 300 km 30 .

 Less cost/unit length Source: ABB 31 .

 Limitation of AC transmission line Line model Source: EPRI System Modeling for Line Loadability 32 .

200 2.400 24.600 5.200 345 500 765 1100 Note: No series or shunt compensation HVDC can utilize line up to thermal limit.000 SIL [MW] 135-145 325-425 850-1075 2.300 5. Limitation of AC transmission line Thermal Limit Typical values of SIL for overhead transmission lines Rated voltage [kV] 230 Steady state stability limit (30% margin) Constant line voltage drop 5% Thermal Limit [MW] 400 1. Source: EPRI 33 .200-2.

fluid-filled (SCFF)  Insulation impregnate is a low viscosity liquid which must be maintained under pressure internally  Conductor has central fluid duct  Extruded cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)  Solid dielectric insulation. no pressurizing plant  Limited applications above 230 kV to date Source: ABB 34 . Limitation of AC cable General AC Cable Technologies  Pipe-type  Coated and protected steel pipe houses the cable and dielectric fluid  Dielectric fluid is maintained under pressure  Insulation material is Kraft paper or laminated paper-polypropylene  Self-contained. no fluid.

1.MI for DC 4.Extruded HVDC Light for DC Source: ABB 2.Extruded HVDC Light for DC 35 .Single-core XLPE for AC 5.SCFF for AC or DC 3.Three-core XLPE for 6.

 Limitation of AC cables Source: ABB 36 .

 Limitation of AC cables HVDC can utilize cable up to thermal limit. Source: ABB 37 .

 Limitation of AC Interconnection  It is impossible to connect two (or more) different system frequencies via HVAC. it is impossible to connect two (or more) systems through HVAC event their system frequencies are equal.  Without control center to take care off whole system frequency. 38 . Difficult to control power flow between areas without special equipment such as phase shifting transformer.  But HVDC can overcome these problems.

Applications of HVDC .

Applications of HVDC 40 .

the system frequency falls down over an acceptable level.Emergency Frequency Control When a large generator is tripped. 41 . HVDC can rapidly increase or reverse power flow direction to compensate unbalance active power to recover system frequency.

Japan 42 . Source TMT&D.Automatic Frequency Control When you require to improve frequency deviation in normal operation and after large disturbances. application of Automatic Frequency Control (AFC) function is recommended.

Power Swing Damping Control The modulation control of the DC power improves power swing stability and effectively dampes power oscillations. (this function is not limited for HVDC–HVAC line in parallel. Japan 43 . but also applies to HVDC linked between two AC networks.) Source TMT&D.

Source TMT&D. Japan 44 . overall transmitted power can be built up smoothly from zero to the rated value by having two poles transmit power in opposite directions.Starting Up the Generator When an HVDC system is connected to the isolated generator at the sending end. The bipoler operation is available. the system has to be started up in coordination with the governor action of the generator.

Usage of HVDC in USA (same frequency) 45 .

Usage of HVDC in Japan (two different system frequencies) Source: Toshiba 46 .

47 .Usage of HVDC in India.

Usage of HVDC in China 48 .

A 3150+3150 MW ±600 kV HVDC power link between Itaipu and SãoPaulo brings power generated at 50 Hz (in Itaipuhydropower plant) to the 60 Hz network in SãoPaulo. This project was commissioned in 1984-1987. 49 . Itaipu. Brazil Brazil decided to build a HVDC transmission system from Itaipuhydro power plant to SãoPaulo to meet the rapidly growing power demand in 1978.

 Québec -New England. Canada and to Boston. Canada -US This project was commissioned in 1990-1992. It is a 2000 MW ±450 kV multi-terminal HVDC power link. Québec. The HVDC multi-terminal system brings power from La Grande II hydro power station to loads in Montreal. USA 50 . Massachusetts.

This project was commissioned in 1997 and it is an economic exchange between a thermal power system and a hydro/nuclear power system 51 . Baltic Cable. Sweden -Germany A 600 MW 450 kV HVDC sea cable system links between Germany and Sweden to enable further integrate power systems of the Baltic Sea region.

 Brazil -Argentina Interconnection This project links Argentina (50 Hz) and Brazil (60 Hz) to utilize their electricity resources more efficiently and cost effectively. It providers import and export power to take advantage of peaks demand between Brazil’s and Argentina’s asynchronous networks. 52 . It is a CCC-HVDC (2200 MW 140 kV (±70 kV) back-to-back system).

Because of long transmission lines. e. With daming control of HVDC. with a fully synchronous interconnection. Without HVDC.the power oscillations occur. In first case. thus leading to blackout. HVDC GuiGuang.g. HVDC is transmitting power in constant power mode (curve a). the AC system experiences severe power oscillations after systems faults. . close to the stability limits. the oscillations are damped very effectively (curve b). China HVDC has been integrated. 53 . such a large power system would be unstable in case of fault contingencies.

 Hokkaido-Honsyu HVDC (Japan) Source: Toshiba 54 .

55 . This function was designed to damp interarea oscillation on the tie transmission line linking Central system and Southern system. This HVDC offers an important option in economic operation of the Thailand power system. One of these is Power Swing Damping (PSD) function. Thailand In 2003. a mono-polar 300 MW 300 kV HVDC transmission system was installed between Thailand and Malaysia. It transfers economical energy between two countries. This HVDC provides four enhanced stability functions for AC system. EGAT-TNB HVDC.

TNB experienced the separated system event between the Northern part and the Southern part. 56 . It resulted in over-frequency in the Northern part and low frequency in the Southern part due to over generation (in north) and lower generation (in south) respectively. Frequency Limit Control (FLC) function of the HVDC increased power into EGAT system from 300 MW to 406 MW to stabilize frequency in TNB system. EGAT-TNB HVDC. 2005. Malaysia M A IN G R ID IN P E N IN S U L A R M A L A Y S IA L A N G KA W I P E R L IS C h u p in g K uah K an gar K o ta B h a ru K o ta S et ar A lo r S e ta r N S O U T H C H IN A KEDAH YAN B edo ng G u ru n T an a h M e ra h TNB frequency PERGAU G e o rg e to w n PRAI B u k it T en g a h J u n ju n g B u k it T a m b u n B E R S IA S TEMENGOR K E N E R IN G K u ala T e re n g g a n u E A P U L A U P IN A N G GELUGO R K ELA N TA N K E N Y IR S G P IA H U P P E R S G P IA H L O W E R CHENDEROH K u a la K a n g s a r TER E N G G A N U PAKA YTL JOR W OH ODAK T elo k K a lo n g PERAK Ip o h P ap a n B a tu G a ja h DC Power to EGAT SEGARI Ayer Taw ar JA N A M A N JU N G PAHANG K u an ta n B u k it T ar ek S ELA N G O R KAPAR K L (E ) K L (N ) S hah A la m K L (S ) H ic o m G Kg Awah W IL A Y A H PERSEKUTUAN SERDANG CONNAUGHT B R ID G E N E G E R I S E M B IL A N G E N T IN G SANYEN S a la k T in g g i S e re m b a n L eng gen g Legend H y d ro P o w e r S ta tio n T h e rm a l P o w e r S ta tio n S ta te C a p ita l M a jo r T N B S u b s ta tio n PD POW ER PORT D IC K S O N P O W E R TSK E O F M ELA K A M ela k a M e la k a S M E x is t in g P la n n e d T IT A A M ELAKA K R A L E Y o n g P e n g (E ) Y o n g P e n g (N ) JO H O R S ed ili B u k it B a tu Jo ho r B a h ru 5 0 0 k V O v e r h e a d L in e 3 0 0 k V H V D C L in e 2 7 5 k V O v e r h e a d L in e 2 7 5 k V C a b le Scu dai YTL P A S IR GUDANG January 13.

Future Trends .

Source: ABB 58 .

g. Voltage-sourced converter based HVDC systems are called HVDC Light (ABB) or HVDC Plus (Siemens) become new trend of HVDC due to  Converters  Suitable do not require reactive power.  Advanced system features. 59 .  Black Start Capability  Short delivery time. and land cable both for submarine connections.  Small footprint (e. 550 MW): 120 x 50 x 11 meters.

The fast switching capability of the IGBT allows to create a pulse width modulated (PWM) AC voltage. Thus it can connect to very weak power systems. Voltage-sourced converters (VSC) operate with a smooth dc voltage provided by a storage capacitor.  The commutation does not depend on the ac network voltage.  The ac output voltage of the converter can be changed extremely quickly. 60 .  The converter can operate in 4 quadrants of the active power and reactive power plane.

±80 kV) was commissioned and brought into operation in 2000 to connect the grids of Queensland and New South Wales. Australia. A power of 50 MW is transferred through two underground cables of 70 km length at a voltage level of ±80 kV from the south of the island to the north. the voltage and power ratings of IGBTs are as yet far below those of thyristors and so applications with voltagesourced converters are limited to low and medium power.  61 . The first commercial project was once more commissioned on Gotland and taken into service in November 1999.  A similar installation (3X60 MW. However.

Power rating of Switching devices Source: ABB 62 .

Source: ABB 63 .

Source: ABB 64 .

Source: Siemens 65 .

Conclusion .

Power flow control. Sensitive to fault in AC network near converter. No capacitive charging current on DC lines. Does not increase the shortcircuit currents in the AC network. Economic for long transmission line and bulk energy. Converter stations are expensive and complex arrangements when compared with the stations in an AC system. 67     the thermal limit. the return current passing through ground causes corrosion in metal objects. Ground or sea can be used as a return conductor. In mono-polar links. Converters produce harmonics both in the AC network and the DC side. Advantages of HVDC  DC lines can be loaded up to      Disadvantages of HVDC Electric Field can cause a problem to human. . Interconnection between two AC systems is possible. N-1 criteria may not be required. Conventional Converters (rectifier and inverter) require reactive power. Fast control of power and stabilizing of AC system.

Long distance over land HVDC + OH line HVDC + Cable CCC B2B CCC +OH line CCC + Cable Long distance over sea Interconnection asynchronous network Wind Turbine connection to network Feed a small isolated loads       VSC B2B VSC + Cable           68 .

power systems will grow (very) fast. In future. It is a proven technology. Because of reliability and economic reasons. HVDC will play a significant role in the future (such as China and Indian). 69 . VSC-HVDC and polyethylene DC cables will made  Economic   at lower power levels (down to 200 MW)  Economic at short distance (60 km). In emerging countries. Conventional HVDC still uses in power system.

70 .Thank you ขอบคุณครับ Questions and discussions are very welcome.

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