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Carrier Ethernet

for Mobile Backhaul

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Topics – Carrier Ethernet for Mobile Backhaul

• Current status and trends


• Activating Carrier Ethernet for Mobile
Backhaul
• Issues and Solutions for Mobile Backhaul
• MEF’s role in enabling Mobile Backhaul
infrastructure deployment
• Questions from the Audience

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Panel Members

Andrew Sachs
Hossam Salib
Director of Solutions Strategy
SVP Marketing/PLM
JDSU
CO Founder, Aktino
Andrew.sachs@jdsu.com
Hossam.salib@aktino.com
301-455-5277
949 258 0545 x226

Eitan Schwartz Ioannis Kanellakopoulos, PhD


VP, Pseudowire and Ethernet Access CTO
RAD Data Communications Actelis Networks
Eitan_sc@rad.com ioannis@actelis.com
201-378-0311 Tel: +1-510-545-1035

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Carrier Ethernet
for Mobile Backhaul
Current Status and Trends

Hossam Salib
SVP Marketing/PLM
CO Founder, Aktino
Hossam.salib@aktino.com
949 258 0545 x226

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Mobile Backhaul Trends

• Over 2.5 billion mobile phone users in


2006, growing to 3.6 billion in 2010
– Growing dependence on mobile connection
– Data and video mobility for all
– Growing Data & Video – more asymmetrical
• Traffic grows exponentially,
ARPU/revenue does not
– The #1 driver for new backhaul technologies
• Carrier Ethernet for backhaul
– Ethernet microwave
– Wireline Ethernet copper, coax, fiber, DOCSIS,
DSL, PON
Source: Infonetics Research, 2008

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Mobile Backhaul Has Dynamic Growth …
9/06 7/07
• Symmetrical BW
required for existing
2G/3G traffic
• Growing Data & Video –
more asymmetrical

Legacy TDM
Movies, music, news, more
music, text, web, more content ..

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Industry trends

• Demand for bandwidth will grow


Traffic
disproportionately
more than GapGap
Gap between
between
between traffic
traffic
traffic
andand revenue
revenue
revenue for the increases
operator
• The bandwidth increase will Revenues
primarily be on Best Effort data
user services, and driven by ‘flat
Voice Dominant Data Dominant
fee business models’
• Search for technologies to Source: Light Reading
provide cheaper and more
effective ways to meet the
capacity grow at a lower CAPEX
and OPEX
• Evolution towards Ethernet/IP
based mobile solutions 7
RAN Backhaul Bandwidth issues……..
Older Radio Technology Today
gets .5 to 1 bits per Htz and much Today Spectrum is chopped up
Mobile Cell Site Today
Spectrum is unused for use in various inefficient
VZW 60 Mhz = 7.5 Mb radio technologies. This limits
VZW 5 T-1’s the RAN backhaul
requirements.
Sprint 140 Mhz = 7.5 Mb Sprint 5 T-1’s
Total Average Cell Site
AT&T/ Cingular 80 Mhz = 9 Mb AT&T 6 T-1’s Bandwidth utilization
18+ T-1s or 27+ Meg
T-Mo 50 Mhz = 3 Mb
T-Mo 2 T-1’s

New radio technologies get 2 bits per Hz


More purchasable spectrum available
Increased data demand Very Soon
Greatly increase RAN backhaul needs. 660 Meg potential
backhaul requirements
AND GROWING
Spectrum and Mobile providers Mobile Cell Site
potential As more Spectrum is
auctioned off and radio
VZW 60 Mhz = 120Mb VZW systems become more
efficient.
Sprint 140 Mhz = 280 Mb Sprint
-100 meg or more per cell
AT&T/ Cingular 80 Mhz = 160Mb AT&T sites requirement will start
in 2008-9
T-Mo 50 Mhz = 100Mb T-Mo

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Carrier Ethernet
for Mobile Backhaul
Activating Carrier Ethernet for Mobile
Backhaul
Andrew Sachs
Director of Solutions Strategy
JDSU
Andrew.sachs@jdsu.com
301-455-5277

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What the Wireless Carriers are Thinking about
• Migration to IP
– WiMax & LTE are all IP
– CDMA is moving there rapidly
– UMTS “3G” is moving to IP via ATM, Ethernet Radios
this year
– Cell Site equipment & Mobile applications being
designed for IP
– Circuit Emulation to sustain TDM infrastructure
• Bandwidth Growth – Need to plan for 15 to 20 times
the growth of bandwidth and systems over the next 5
to 8 years.
• Mobile operators are looking to Lower Costs
– Broadband costs less per bit than T1
– Reduce the amount of systems -- simplify

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Ethernet Options Solve Backhaul Cost Problem

Worldwide M obile 1st M ile Backhaul Service Charges per • PDH (T1/E1 etc.) costs
Connection:
PDH and ATM over PDH vs New Wireline climb directly with
bandwidth
$40,000
Stay on PDH $37,044
• Ethernet wireline costs
$30,000
grow gently with large
bandwidth increases
(Eth, DSL, PON, cable)
Revenue

PDH and ATM over PDH


$20,000
New wireline
• New IP/Ethernet
Ethernet
$10,000 wireline options to
$6,887
satisfy the the #1
$0
investment driver:
CY05 CY06 CY07 CY08 CY09 CY10
operational cost
Calendar Year
savings
Source: Infonetics Research Mobile Backhaul Equipment, Installed Base, and Services, 2007

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Mobile Backhaul Options

1000BT
100BT

GigE
GBE
Direct WDM C SIS 10/100BT

Fiber EoDO

Leased
Service 100BT
Ethernet
Provider
ADM EoSONET/SDH
Network

Ra
dio
Le
RAN T1 as
NC PON /D ed
S3
nx
Eo T 1
T1/
DS
3

100BT

• Mobile backhaul Ethernet can be delivered over a


variety of access technologies

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Ethernet Growth by Backhaul Technology - NA

New Circuit Growth – North America

•Source Heavy Reading, 4Q07

–In North America, T1s continue to be the dominant


backhaul technology for the period 2007-2011. For new
Ethernet deployments, most will be served by Ethernet
over fiber (59%) and microwave (25%) technologies.

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Progression to an All-Packet Network

Backhaul
Base Station Interfaces
Infrastructure
2G/2.5G – TDM
GSM/GPRS, TDMA, CDMA PDH
SDH

3G – ATM
UMTS Rel. 99 ATM

3G/4G – Ethernet/IP Ethernet/


UMTS rev. 5&6, CDMA 1X EV-DO, IP/MPLS
WiMax, UTRAN LTE

Benefits: Scalable bandwidth, OpEx savings with fast ROI, future proof architecture
Challenge: Precise timing over asynchronous packet networks, OAM, availability of
high speed links (fiber)

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Challenges and Requirements
Transport Providers and Mobile Operators

• Transport providers are trying to:


– Support multiple operators at the same tower
– Accurately and independently regenerate timing per mobile
operator
– Deliver quality service (low latency, jitter and packet loss)
– Support variety of cellular protocols with TDM, ATM and
Ethernet interfaces
– Provide diagnostic tools to operator, such as in-band facility
loopbacks
– Find hardened units for use in compact outdoor cabinets

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Challenges and Requirements
Transport Providers and Mobile Operators

• Mobile operators are looking for flexible equipment


that can:
– Take advantage of the lowest cost, highest bandwidth
access networks
– Optimize usage of access links with intelligent
oversubscription, idle flag suppression, Abis optimization,
DBA, per VC switching, etc.
– Detect faults and network degradation (excessive latency,
jitter, etc.)
– Monitor performance to ensure SLA guarantees are met

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Carrier Ethernet
for Mobile Backhaul
Issues and Solutions for Mobile
Backhaul
Eitan Schwartz
VP, Pseudowire and Ethernet Access
RAD Data Communications
Eitan_sc@rad.com
201-378-0311

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Mobile issues – SLAs and PM
• Service performance and SLAs
– Delay, delay variation and timing are key for Mobile backhaul
• Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)
– Recommended key parameters for SLAs – MEF 10.1
– Service availability, frames lost, frame delay, frame delay variation
– Defined the “what”, not the “how”
• RFC-2819 - RMON Etherstats
– Monitoring of local performance (eg node or LAN)
• Y.1731/802.1ag
– Focused on end to end service (WAN)
– Includes both monitoring and test
– Frame delay, frame delay variation, frame loss ratio
• Diagnostics
– Ethernet Frame loss, latency & throughput using RFC-2544 and MAC swap
loopbacks
– Circuit Emulation using ANSI T1 403 inband facility loopbacks

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Support for Legacy Services over Ethernet

• Circuit Emulation / Pseudowire technology enables legacy migration to


packet-switched networks (IP, Ethernet, and MPLS).
• MEF-8: IA for the Emulation of PDH Circuits over Carrier Ethernet
• MEF-18: Abstract Test Suite for Circuit Emulation Services
• Pseudowire challenges:
• “Packetization” and Encapsulation of TDM Traffic
• Attenuate Packet Delay Variation (PDV or Jitter)
• Compensate for Frame Loss and Out-of-Sequence Packets
• Recover Clock and Synchronization
Pseudowire BSC/RNC
Pseudowire
Enabled EDD
Enabled EDD Carrier Ethernet
BTS
TDM, ATM TDM, ATM
FR, etc. PWE3 #1 FR, etc.
PWE3 #2

Tunnel PBX
PBX
Legacy Pseudowire Legacy
DSLAM Service BRAS
Service Legacy Emulated Service

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Synchronization Over Packet Switched Networks

IMA or OC-3/STM-1 3G RNC


OC-3/
STM-1
3G Node B PWE3
PWE3
Packet
FE GbE
Switched 2G BSC
Ch.OC-3 /DS3
Network
Ch. STM-1
E1/T1 TDM

2G BTS Primary Reference


G.823/824 Synchronization Information Clock (PRC)
Compliant Clock

• 2G/2.5G/3G require accurate frequency reference:


– GSM (50ppb), UMTS (16ppb) CDMA (uses GPS receivers)
– Ideally holdover of ±16 ppb ±1 ppb of aging per day
• Recovered clock at the cell site should conform to ITU-T
G.823/G.824 Sync interface using G.8261-defined scenarios
• Multiple Timing Domains
• System timing with master and fallback sources

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Mobile Backhaul Synchronization over Ethernet
• Cellular base stations of any generation (2G, 2.5G and
3G) require a highly accurate frequency reference
– The possibility of deriving transmission frequencies from this reference
– Lengthy synchronization procedures between cells (for hand-off) when their
clocks are not sufficiently similar
• CDMA over Ethernet
– From a timing point of view, this is relatively straightforward since CDMA uses
GPS receivers at each cell site
– Therefore each base station is effectively self synchronizing with master
clocks in the GPS Satellite network
• GSM, W-CDMA and UMTS over Ethernet
– Base stations rely on a recovered clock from the T1/E1 leased line or
microwave link to which they are connected
– 50 parts per billion of frequency error is required to support the GSM handoff
mechanism as mobile stations wander from one cell to the other.
– With UMTS, the clock should have frequency stability of less than 16 ppb

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Primary Synchronization Methods
• Adaptive
– Clock is distributed over the PSN as TDM stream and is adaptively
recovered solely using time-of-arrival information
– The format of the clock stream is a standard PWE3 flow, so
interoperability with 3rd party vendors is simplified
– Independent of the physical layer
• IEEE 1588v2
– Time and frequency distribution protocol based on time-stamp
information exchange (similar to NTP)
– If the PSN network elements do not support 1588, then 1588 and
adaptive deliver the same frequency recovery performance
– Note that 1588 is just the packet format; what is critical is the clock
recovery algorithm, which is not standardized
• ITU G.8261 (Synchronous Ethernet)
– Uses the physical layer of Ethernet for accurate frequency distribution
– Unaffected by network impairments (e.g., PDV, Packet-loss, etc.)

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Carrier Ethernet can provide Mobile Backhaul
Mobile Core Network Radio Access Network
2G/3G/xG
Aggregation
Base Stations
MSC
Voice
Trunking
Node-B
BSC Pseudowire / BTS/
RNC
MSC
Intelligent
TDM/ATM/IP Carrier Demarcation WiMAX
Backbone Ethernet
MSC Wireless

Traffic
Optimization Node-B
/ BTS/

• Reduce transport costs by migrating 2G/2.5G, 3G and 4G


to scalable, lower cost, higher bandwidth Ethernet

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Example: WiMAX Backhaul over Ethernet with QoS
• Traffic Classification, Policing, Scheduling, Shaping
• OAM for non-intrusive monitoring of Connection (CFM) and Performance (PM)
• MAC swap loopbacks for diagnostics tests and performance monitoring
• Hub locations: Oversubscription and shaping to 3rd party network’s CIR/EIR
BS

WSC
4G
WiMAX BS
Remote
Aggregator Cell Site BS

CESR Ethernet
NMS / MPLS BS
FE /
PE GbE HUB Remote
Cell Site

Test BS
Transport Network HUB
Head OAM 3 Party Transport Provider
rd
Edge-to-end

Segment 1 Remote
Segment 2 Cell Site
Segment 3

SLA monitoring and diagnostics

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Carrier Ethernet
for Mobile Backhaul
MEF’s role in enabling Mobile Backhaul
infrastructure deployment

Ioannis Kanellakopoulos, PhD


CTO
Actelis Networks
ioannis@actelis.com
Tel: +1-510-545-1035

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Mobile Backhaul Implementation Agreement

• The structure of the document provides generic guidelines


for several mobile technologies – specific guidelines for a
given mobile technology may also be specified
• MEF Mobile Backhaul
– Standardized services
– Certification
– Interoperability
UNI
• UNI Requirements Carrier Ethernet
BTS/NodeB Network
– Ethernet OAM (Link OAM UNI
EVC
and Service OAM)
– Protection and Fault
Recovery Requirements
• Service Requirements UNI RAN / BSC

– CoS Requirements
– Service Definitions BTS/NodeB

– Synchronization

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Today’s Mobile Backhaul MEF Use Cases

• The Implementation Agreement identifies four generic


deployment scenarios that capture the main short term
and long term deployment possibilities

Legacy

Legacy Transport

Legacy RAN Legacy RAN

Legacy = “non-packet RAN” and “non-packet transport”

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Packet offload over carrier Ethernet – 1a
Legacy

Generic
Carrier Ethernet Network Generic
Interworking Interworking
Function Function

UNI UNI

Legacy Network
RAN BTS

RAN NC

• Overlay MEN does bandwidth offloading onto Ethernet


services
• Legacy network continues to transport voice and deliver
timing

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Emulation over Carrier Ethernet – 1b
Legacy

Generic
Carrier Ethernet Network Generic
Interworking Interworking
RAN BTS Function Function

UNI UNI RAN NC

• RAN nodes with legacy interfaces transport all traffic


over Ethernet services using emulation technologies

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RAN dual stack – 2a
Legacy
Eth/IP

Legacy Network

Carrier Ethernet Network


RAN BTS

UNI UNI RAN NC

• RAN nodes are equipped with Ethernet and legacy


interfaces
• Overlay legacy network transport voice and delivers
sync; MEN is used for BW offloading

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Full Ethernet BTS and Transport Network– 2b
Eth/IP

Carrier Ethernet Network


RAN BTS

UNI UNI RAN NC

• New RAN nodes with native Ethernet interfaces


• All traffic is transported over Ethernet services

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Separation of Voice and HSPA Data over Ethernet / IP
Use case 1ab and 2ab example
N*E1 ATM/IMA
Cell Site or STM1/VC4 Use Case 1a
TDM or ATM T1/E1/ orATM
Backhaul Aggregation

Voice
Data
Node B / BTS Ethernet/IP/MPLS/PWE
Backhaul FE / GE
FE/GE Aggregation RNC/BSC

Pico/Femto Node B / BTS


Use Case 1b
N*T1/E1 ATM/IMA
or STM1/VC4
ATM PW Trunk
Wi-Max Node B / BTS Ethernet / MPLS
Ethernet All-IP
FE / GE
Ethernet PW Trunk
TDM PW Trunk
DSL/GPON Node B / BTS
N*T1/E1TDM FE / GE
Aggregation RNC/BSC
Use Case 2a/b same as 1a/b except
BTS/NodeB have Ethernet Interfaces

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MEF 18 Certification for Mobile Backhaul CES

• MEF 18 provides standard testing of Circuit Emulation


Services over Ethernet
– Speeds implementation and enables full inter-operability
– 334 ground breaking tests and certifications in the suite
– MEF 18 has many applications but is key to Mobile Backhaul
migration strategies
• Lead by strong service provider demand
• Industry first impairment testing brings first test of
emulation of clock recovery
• Raise the level of confidence that clock recovery will
meet the stringent requirements of mobile backhaul.

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Closing

• Carrier Ethernet is in demand for Mobile


Backhaul
• There are Ethernet deployment options for all
mobile backhaul situations
• Carrier Ethernet technology is rising to meet the
stringent technical and operational requirements
of Mobile Backhaul
• The MEF is working in conjunction with other
standards organizations to ensure that scalable
solutions are available

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Panel Members – Q&A

Andrew Sachs
Hossam Salib
Director of Solutions Strategy
SVP Marketing/PLM
JDSU
CO Founder, Aktino
Andrew.sachs@jdsu.com
Hossam.salib@aktino.com
301-455-5277
949 258 0545 x226

Eitan Schwartz Ioannis Kanellakopoulos, PhD


VP, Pseudowire and Ethernet Access CTO
RAD Data Communications Actelis Networks
Eitan_sc@rad.com ioannis@actelis.com
201-378-0311 Tel: +1-510-545-1035

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Thank You

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