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What is Dualism?

Scripture defines the human problem
as moral rebellion against God but
the Greeks believe the problem is
metaphysical. The material world is
seen as evil/chaotic while the
spiritual Forms are rational/good.

Monastic Spirituality
Augustine treated the
contemplative life of
prayer and meditation in
monasteries as superior
to the active life of
ordinary work in the

Rage Against The Machine

Descartes and Kant
pictured the world as a
huge mechanistic system
moving in fixed patterns
by natural laws while the
mind is the realm of
thought, emotion, will.


Human - Body versus Soul. Two opposing
substances, one is redeemable and the
other lost. But man is a cohesive whole.
The whole man was created good and
being redeemed.
Reality - Heaven versus World. Escape
this hopeless physical world for a
disembodied existence. But heaven and
earth shall be renewed, resurrected body.
Faith - Sacred versus Secular. Prayer and
religious meditation is more valuable than
manual labor. But all of life is sacred.
Thinking Tool-Box
Creation: What’s
Original Purpose?

Fall: What Went

What’s Solution?
The Creation
The physical world God
made was GOOD! Nature
is a showcase of His glory.
Humanity is made in God’s
own image for relationship,
different from the rest of
creation. Life is sacred.
Work is meaningful in a
rhythm of rest and labor.
The Fall
We have pushed God out
from the equation. In
disobedience, we have
made physical and mental
substitutes (idols) to tell us
right from wrong. Sin has
corrupted nature, fractured
social relationships,
alienation, resulted in
toilsome work directed by
Christ has freed us from
power of sin, reconciled
us with God and
restored us to be fully,
truly human. Our work
joins in His redemptive
purpose to reverse the
effects of sin, ushering
His kingdom come, His
will be done on earth as
it is in heaven. Saved to
do good in THIS world
The heart is what The brain is what
we use for religion we use for science
Whose Work Is “Spiritual”?

Hierarchy of Spiritual Jobs…
Every Square Inch
Abraham Kuyper, a journalist, theologian,
politician and educator says: “There is not
a square inch in the universe that Christ
does not claim, “This is mine!” The
Lordship of Christ embraces all of life. Do
all things for the glory of God. If all life is
the Lord’s, reflect about your area of
study, interest, vocation and leisure.

Transforming Vision
Laypeople in every facet of
life – media, politics,
business, education and
others – should be enabled
to challenge the prevailing
assumptions of society in
light of the gospel.
Theology should not be
reserved for pastors and
scholars only!
Lesslie Newbigin