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, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. •Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity
and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture. Wright
conceived virtually every detail of both the external design and the internal fixtures, including furniture, carpets, windows, doors, tables and chairs, light fittings and decorative elements. •He was one of the first architects to design and supply custom-made, purpose-built furniture and fittings that functioned as integrated parts of the whole design. Believing that “the space within that building is the reality of that building”, • Wright was a leader of the Prairie School movement of architecture and developed the concept of the Usonian home, his unique vision for urban planning in the United States.
• His work includes original and innovative examples of many different building types, including offices,
churches, schools, skyscrapers, hotels, and museums. Wright also designed many of the interior elements of his buildings, such as the furniture and stained glass.
Personal style and concepts
•His Prairie houses use themed, coordinated design elements (often based on plant forms) that are repeated in windows, carpets and other fittings. He made innovative use of new building materials such as precast concrete blocks, glass bricks and zinc cames (instead of the traditional lead) for his leadlight windows, and he famously used Pyrex glass tubing as a major element in the Johnson Wax Headquarters. As ever Wright was concerned with creating an interior living space that was practical and comfortable. Gravity heat was installed by placing coils of pipes under the concrete slab floor •Wright was also one of the first architects to design and install custom-made electric light fittings, including some
of the very first electric floor lamps, and his very early use of the then-novel spherical glass lampshade (a design
previously not possible due to the physical restrictions of gas lighting). •As Wright's career progressed, so did the mechanization of the glass industry. Wright fully embraced glass in his designs and found that it fit well into his philosophy of organic architecture. Glass allowed for interaction and viewing of the outdoors while still protecting from the elements. •Wright responded to the transformation of domestic life that occurred at the turn of the 20th century, when servants became a less prominent or completely absent from most American households, by developing homes with progressively more open plans.
particularly shapes/forms and colors/patterns of plant life. whom he considered to be his 'Lieber Meister' (dear master). prints and buildings. Nature. 5. Music (his favorite composer was Ludwig van Beethoven. Japanese art.Frank Lloyd Wright's Important Ideas: Usonian Prairie Style Organic Architecture Hemicycle Designs Famous Quotes by Frank Lloyd Wright: "The physician can bury his mistakes. 4. Froebel Gifts . but most architects. Louis Sullivan. but the architect can only advise his clients to plant vines. 2. 3. historians and scholars agree he had five major influences: 1." Colleagues and influences Wright rarely credited any influences on his designs.
T-shaped. Illinois. "A Home in a Prairie Town. Central chimney V. Widely considered Wright's first Prairie Style house in Oak Park. and one of his earliest uses of stucco. Overhanging eaves III. Low-pitched roof II. Although this house uses ornamentation in the fashion of Louis Sullivan. Clerestory window About the Prairie Style: Frank Lloyd Wright believed that rooms in Victorian era homes were boxed-in and confining. prairie landscape. Wright believed these stripped-down houses represented the democratic ideals of the United States. it also shows elements of the new Prairie style. Open floor plan VI. Wright's best-known art glass is that of the Prairie style. 1909: Robie Residence This Frank Lloyd house in Chicago is widely considered Wright's finest example of the Prairie style. Famous Prairie Houses by Frank Lloyd Wright 1893: William Winslow Residence River Forest. Later Prairie homes used concrete block. . 1902: Arthur Heurtley House Oak Park. Illinois. compact house has variegated brickwork with vibrant color and rough texture. Prairie homes can have many shapes: Square. Thomas House Oak Park. and even pinwheel-shaped. The simple geometric shapes that yield to very ornate and intricate windows represent some of the most integral ornamentation of his career. The house is a symmetrical rectangle. In 1936. Y-shaped. Illinois. The first Prairie houses were usually plaster with wood trim or sided with horizontal board and batten. This low. 1901: Frank W.Prairie style houses usually have these features: I." Prairie houses were designed to blend in with the flat. during the USA depression. Furniture was either built-in or specially designed. L-shaped. Frank Lloyd Wright developed a simplified version of Prairie architecture called Usonian. Began designing houses with low horizontal lines and open interior spaces. Homes were called prairie style after Wright's 1901 Ladies Home Journal plan titled. Horizontal lines IV. Rooms often divided by leaded glass panels.
L. But in his works. plastered. his building designs emphasize the following principles: •Integration of parts to the whole. “When organic architecture is properly carried out no landscape is ever outraged by it but is always developed by it. the architect used a living organism as an example: •Harmony of the part in relation to the whole.” said Wright. •The form of the organism decides the character of the organism. painted. by allowing for instance.” This was Wright’s achievement at Fallingwater. •Design of parts controls the design of the whole. •The parts are made according to the function of the organism. These materials had hitherto been used in different ways – covered. Use of materials in organic architecture Wright had a deep knowledge of and a lot of respect for natural materials such as wood and stone. To explain the concept of unity in nature. which has been called "the best all-time work of American architecture". “The good building makes the landscape more beautiful than it was before the building was built. •Applying these concepts . and altered to suit any particular fashion or taste. these materials were always used in the natural form. . F. Wright and Louis Sullivan were the pioneers of organic architecture. Wright defined organic architecture as that in which all the parts are related to the whole and the whole is related to the parts. . •This philosophy was best exemplified by his design for Falling water (1935). the use of masses of stone as the natural feature of the building.Organic Architecture This school of thought holds that architecture should reflect nature and exhibit the same amount of unity as prevails in nature.
Made of natural cheerywood with an upholstered leather seat. Wingspread. Dimensions: 57 ¾ x 17 ¾ x 19 ¼Built in 1895 for the Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio.Side Chair. Oak with leather seat. the chairs created a temporary. When positioned around a dining table. intimate enclosure of space. Frank Lloyd Wright Home and Studio. 1895. the chair was a reworking of a design Wright created in 1904. Miniature Wright Imperial Hotel Chair Miniature Wright Robie House 1 chair The "Barrel Chair" by Frank Lloyd Wright was designed in 1937 for Herbert Johnson's house. these side chairs have high backs that extend above the heads of the sitters. Miniature Frank Lloyd Wright – Johnson Wax Chair . a room within a room.
Dimensions: 90 x 90 x H 41 cm 115 x 115 x H 41 cm Design: Frank Lloyd Wright Manufacturer: Cassina . the chair has had many incarnations associated with different Wright house projects.Origami Chair" Frank Lloyd Wright Lewis Tables Low square tables in natural cherrywood. Frank Lloyd Wright's 1949 Taliesin "Origami Chair" is one of the most coveted of his furniture designs. Designed as if it was folded from a sheet of plywood. stained walnut or stained black.
Print table Made by Frank Lloyd Wright (American. Minnesota. Little's summer house on Lake Minnetonka. 1867–1959) Manufactured by William E. Frank Lloyd Wright arranged the furniture and fixtures as part of the overall architectural composition of the living room . Nemmers White oak This print table with folding stand was designed for Francis W.
has 3 stories of floor-toceiling windows). create strong horizontal lines balanced by the almost unbroken vertical lines in the tower on the left (which in addition to stone columns over 10 meters tall. • it has had the honor of being designated as a National Historic Landmark in 1966. downstream. These and many other clear horizontal and vertical lines in the house may be compared with the formation of the rock. with the horizontal and vertical of ground and trees. and with the water moving horizontally in the stream (Bear run) and vertically as "falling water" in the form of waterfalls . View from lookout. as well as the large terrace above it. Frank Lloyd Wright planned the house with this particular view in mind. The sound of the flowing water fills the house continuously.The falls visible in the photo break at an angle.Falling Water: interior spaces •A house built over a waterfall way back in 1934. creating an illusion of water flowing out from beneath the middle of the house. Building form:Dramatic cantilevered terraces reflect the similar structure of the rock ledges below. Roomy terraces on either side of the living room on the main level. Kaufmann Sr. • this house was the former residence of Edgar J. . • Having ranked 29th on America’s Favorite Architecture of all times.
west (downstream) side.There is no grand front entrance. besides everything mentioned above. this is actually the top of an original boulder on the site. Living room. if that means big double doors flanked by decorations and symbolizing the barrier between outside and inside. the continuity of inside and outside is emphasized. and which protrudes slightly above the level of the rest of the floor. under the "front" windows at a right angle to the window in this picture. include windows wrapping all the way around 3 sides of the huge living room. Other examples of this. lighter stone is visible. becoming the hearth. In front of the fireplace. left in place. from southeast . in keeping with the theme of a harmonious and natural relationship to the setting. A similar. Rather. Cushions on the benches and in the modular seating are stone white or autumn colors. and at the corners where two window panes meet here and at other places in the house such as the west tower . Most prominent in the photo is the sitting area. longer bench extends practically the full width of the living room.there are no bulky vertical support beams. which includes a long built-in upholstered bench accompanied by cushioned modular seating.
There is no separate dining room at Fallingwater. and lots of windows (as well as glass doors opening onto balconies) on the south end. lots of space. a built-in desk. a fireplace nearby. Fallingwater's great room (usually called the living room on this site) has this dining area. Dining area showing portrait of Edgar Kaufmann.The dining table at the north end of the living room. seating areas one might expect to find in a living room. enclosed rooms. Frank Lloyd Wright pioneered "open plan" house design. . Sr. open and connected spaces rather than small. favoring large.
with a stove on the left wall. The windows in the photo reach from floor to ceiling. • Built-in shelves follow the contour of the space. and cabinets and sink on the right wall. •So the kitchen is at the foundation of the most dramatic vertical statement in the architectural design of the house. like the inner portions of the house itself.•The kitchen is small. . conveying a feeling of being sturdy and protected. Above the kitchen is the dressing room. and make up the lower third of a three-story wall of glass in the west tower. a table and chairs.
Light pours in from the third floor terrace to the gallery area. They are not fully cantilevered.•These stairs descend from the third floor gallery to the second floor landing next to the bridge across the driveway to the covered walk leading up to the guest house. but much better seen on the left in the gallery photo. designed by Frank Lloyd Wright upon request. •Books on the left wall are on shelves made of the same wood as that used elsewhere in the house. having vertical support boards as well. Third floor stair with bookshelves. . spilling over the low wall just visible on the right.
southwest corner. chair. guest bedroom. Desk. echoing the construction of the house itself.Most exposed shelves throughout the house are cantilevered. second floor. . and shelf. The chair in the photo is the one that Frank Lloyd Wright originally designed for the dining table.
•The low rounded wall in the foreground surrounds the opening above the stairway down to the stream from the hatchway in the living room. •These vertical lines have their counterpart in bold horizontal lines.by a wall of glass). open from top to bottom . the only glass ceiling in the house.3 stories . •The ceiling above is glass. . the west tower on the northwest corner of the house) represent a vertical column of stone (and in the case of the west tower. such as the massive cantilevered levels and large terraces that reach out from them. the two are connected by a vertical "column of air. while the massive fireplace and chimney on the northwest corner of the living room (or." •This "column" of openness is on the southeast corner of the living room (and of the house). •Open to the stream below and to the sky above. more dramaticaly. looking into living room through glass doors and windows. Southeast terrace.
looking up through an open •ing the trellis are windows with a characteristic Wright feature: no vertical corner post. Visible above. so the full effect is not apparent here. •Even in the famous view from downstream. . but before passing under the passageway over the driveway to the covered walk which climbs the hill to the guest house. instead of lording above them in an isolated spot as a man-made imposition.•The driveway trellis (reverse angle) being built with a semi-circular cutaway around a tree symbolizes the theme in the design of the Frank Lloyd Wright Fallingwater house to work with nature and harmonize with it rather than setting itself apart and dominating it. •This is just past the "front" door. the house participates in the dramatic presentation of the rock formations. In the photo several windows are open but the screens are closed.
The Guggenheim Museum in New York City is another bipartite design. middle loggia that could be approached from either side. Wright divided the community space from the temple space through a low. Illinois. Design And Construction • • • • To accommodate the needs of the congregation. . This was an efficient use of space and kept down on noise between the two main gathering areas: those coming for religious services would be separated via the loggia from those coming for community events. and built between 1905 and 1908. Unity Temple is considered by many architects to be the first modern building in the world. and one section being larger than the other. This design was one of Wright's first uses of a bipartite design: with two portions of the building similar in composition and separated by a lower passageway. and the home of the Unity Temple Unitarian Universalist Congregation. reinforced concrete. Was designed by the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright. With its consolidation of aesthetic intent and structure through use of a single material.Unity Temple: Interior spaces • • • Unity Temple is a Unitarian Universalist church in Oak Park.
but efficiently: no one person in the congregation is more than 40 feet from the pulpit. Wright also designed the building with very good acoustics. .• To reduce noise from the street. • The main floor of the temple is accessed via a lower floor (which has seating space). Unity Temple's stained glass was designed with green. yellow. and brown tones in order to evoke the colors of nature. Wright eliminated street level windows in the temple. and the room also has two balconies for the seating of the congregation. • Because the members of the parish would not be able to look outside. • These varying seating levels allowed the architect to design a building to fit the size of the congregation. natural light comes from stained glass windows in the roof and clerestories along the upper walls. Instead.
The lighting so provided creates an ambience of peace and helps unify one with his inner self. The altar .
wider at the top than the bottom. Wright's last major work. 1959. Its appearance is in sharp contrast to typically rectangular Manhattan buildings that surround it. who claimed that his museum would make the nearby Metropolitan Museum of Art "look like a Protestant barn.“ • • • • • • Internally. the Museum first opened its doors to the general public The building was "the first permanent museum to be built (rather than converted from a private house) in the United States. the viewing gallery forms a helical spiral from the main level up to the top of the building. though today it is widely praised From the street. Paintings are displayed along the walls of the spiral and also in exhibition space found at annex levels along the way.Solomon R. a fact relished by Wright.“ The distinctive building. Guggenheim Museum • On October 21. instantly polarized architecture critics upon completion. ten years after the death of Solomon Guggenheim and six months after the death of Frank Lloyd Wright. the building looks like a white ribbon curled into a cylindrical stack. .
• • • • Most of the criticism of the building has focused on the idea that it overshadows the artworks displayed within. The limited space within the niches means that sculptures are generally relegated to plinths amid the main spiral walkway itself. . Paintings hung slanted back would appear "as on the artist's easel". The walls of the niches are neither vertical nor flat (most are gently concave). signed a letter protesting the display of their work in such a space. windowless exhibition niches that surround the central spiral. meaning that canvasses must be mounted raised from the wall's surface. Prior to its opening. twenty-one artists. and that it is difficult to properly hang paintings in the shallow.
html •http://designmuseum.html •http://egotvonline.com/2011/10/21/guggenheim-museum-photos/ •http://www.com/frank-lloyd-wright/fallingwater-pictures/pictures-offallingwater.wright-house.archiplanet.greatbuildings.org/design/frank-lloyd-wright •http://www.•http://www.org/wiki/Unity_Temple .com/buildings/Guggenheim_Museum.
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