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Harmonic and Distributed Generation Interaction Issues in the U.S.

Navy All-Electric Ship Program

13-15 March 2002

Center for Advanced Power Systems Florida State University Power Systems Conference 2002
Impact of Distributed Generation Dr. Thomas

Baldwin, P.E.

Motivation Drivers
Newer Naval ships require significantly larger amount of energy and power (much greater than commercial ships)
Pulse weaponry High-tech, high-power military loads

The need for higher installed power places demands on:


Energy conversion Power delivery system Prompting a move to a common energy / power platform

Military requirements dictate the need for


Low signatures (enemy identification) Non-interference (compatible with military operations) Damage tolerance (recovery and sustainability)
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System Level Performance


Electric Ships are more than electric-drive systems
Includes power generation, distribution, and controls Other loads:
Pulse-power and pulse-energy weaponry Electro-magnetic assistance launch (EMAL) Communication, computer, radar, and sonar Hospitality and service loads

Power system design must be reliable and survivable


Graceful degradation Operational after attack damage
USS Cole - negative experience for the US Navy
Power Systems Conference 2002 Impact of Distributed Generation

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System Philosophy
Currents
ac conventional technology, common machines dc electronic loads, energy storage, fuel cells hybrid best of both worlds? Issues of controllability
stability harmonics protection

Challenges
conversion between current forms losses
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System Philosophy
Distribution system topologies
radial network
traditional method for general electrical loads on ships

loop-radial network
improvement to reliability and handling pulse loads

zonal network
mesh (open or closed) network divided into controllable zones power electronic devices (PEBBs) couple the zones together
controlled power flows, frequency/voltage conversions, filtering
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Electric Ship System Concept


Vision
Integrated Power System All Electric Ship Electrically Reconfigurable Ship Technology Insertion Warfighting Capabilities

Automation Electric Drive Reduced Reduce number manning of Prime Movers Eliminate auxiliary systems Fuel savings steam Reduced maintenance hydraulics compressed air

Increasing Affordability and Military Capability


Main Power Distribution

Propulsion Motor

Motor Drive

Generator

Prime Mover

Courtesy, ONR

Power Conversion Module Power Systems Conference 2002 Impact of Distributed Generation

Ship Service Power


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13-15 March 2002

Reconfigurable, Survivable Power Systems Challenges:


Power Density Energy Density System Efficiency Resource Management and Control

POWER GENERATION FUEL CELL MODULE


TODAY POWER ELECTRONIC BUILDING BLOCK
SOURCE Power Port
PEBB

ZONAL ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM


Ship Service Converter Module (SSCM) Ship Service Inverter Module (SSIM) Ship Service Converter Module (SSCM)

COMBAT READINESS
TIMELINE

CASUALTY

SHIP WIDE ELECTRICAL OUTAGE

COMBAT ELECTRONICS SHUT-DOWN

RECOVERY OF SUPPORT & THEN COMBAT


MINUTES +

LOAD

Power Port Control SYSTEM CONTROL

MILLI-SECONDS SECONDS DETECT FAULT ~80 MICROSECONDS COMBAT SYSTEMS 2-8 SAMPLES STAY ON LINE ISOLATION OF DAMAGE/ RECONFIGURE ELECTRIC PLANT

FUTURE
COMBAT READINESS TIMELINE
CASUALTY

Courtesy, ONR

POWER DISTRIBUTION MODULES

~ 1 MICROSECOND PER SWITCH < 100 MILLI-SECONDS

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6.301.280

Integrated Power System Approach


PDM-1 PDM-1 PDM-1 PDM-1 PDM-1

Propulsion Motor Module

PGM-4

PDM-4

PGM-4

Power Generation Module

Propulsion Motor Module

PDM-4 PDM-1

PGM-4 PDM-1

PGM-4 PDM-1 PDM-1

Power Distribution Module

PDM-1

Flexible and Scaleable Power System


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Technology: PEBBs
Power Electronic Building Blocks
may consist of ac/ac, ac/dc, and dc/dc converters performs multiple power system functions
power flow control voltage transformation network protection

serves as interface and controller


between distribution zones to energy storage systems, fuel cell generation to pulse loads (e.g., EMAL, pulse weapons)
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Technology: Propulsion Drives


Propulsion Drives
Move to propulsion pods
pm synchronous machines ac induction motors dc homopolar motor

Drive technologies
ac / dc-bus / ac converter ac / dc converter dc / dc converter cyclo-converter
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Harmonic Noise
Well-known fact that converters and drives inject harmonic signals onto the electrical network
supply-side noise can impact sensitive loads and network control and protection load-side noise can impact machine performance, insulation life, and mechanical bearings

Cyclo-converters
also introduce inter-harmonic signals as a function of the input and output frequencies

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Typical Harmonic Levels

Cyclo-converter at zero speed, showing classical harmonics

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Typical Harmonic Levels

Cyclo-converter at medium drive speed, illustrated interharmonics

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Harmonic Sensitivity
Sensitive ship loads
radar systems, communication systems computer controls for weapons and navigation technical issues
military computer systems have long restart times loss of critical loads are not acceptable to the Navy

Currently used harmonic mitigation methods


motor-generator sets isolated generation and distribution systems isolating UPS (dc link)
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Harmonic Mitigation
Typical Navy ship builders experience
Design conversion of one class of submarines to an allelectric design electric drive reduced propulsion drive system size and weigh eliminated the mechanical gearbox power system required extensive harmonic filtering consequence: overall vessel design length increased by 10 feet

Novel Course of Action


Harmonic zones some zones are permitted to operate with high levels of harmonic distortion zones are separated by PEBB units research of zonal approach is in the initial phase
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CAPS Harmonic Research Program


Challenge: increasing prevalence of solid state switching converters on a closely coupled AC or DC network that may create problems of harmonic distortion, resonance between system components and system stability Objective: characterize harmonic levels in an (isolated) integrated power system, which has yet to be built, and address any potential problems prior to construction Task:
investigate the effects of harmonics in ship power components and loads, looking at parametric studies, hypothetical operating situation, and new technologies for power conversion, control and filtering Analyze zonal distribution system with mixed levels of harmonic distortion
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CAPS Harmonic Research Program


System and model verification initiative
USCG Healy
EMTDC studies on-board harmonic measurements during maneuvers real-time digital simulation of primary propulsion system

Parametric studies on zonal distribution system

Simulation studies of converters, drives, and PEBBs


Time-domain computer simulations Hardware-in-the-loop tests on prototype powerelectronic equipment
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Simulation & Modeling


Simulation of tightly-coupled power systems with power electronics and weak generation sources
In the utility world, power system problems have been approached through simulation and modeling
initially with scale analog models in the last 30 years with digital modeling

Ship propulsion systems are modeled digitally


using techniques developed primarily for mechanical and control system

The heavy use of power electronics in ship systems creates a need to understand the system performance
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USCG Healy Studies


Ship power system modeling
model development (Aug 2000-June 2001)
propulsion load models of ship hydrodynamics propulsion drives, motor, and control system generation control and dynamics

model verification (comparison with CG results) (Apr 2001-Nov 2001)


performance design criteria ship design-phase simulations recorded data from ship data acquisition system
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USCG Healy Program

Ships one-line diagram

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Real Time Modeling


Utility industry uses real time digital simulation for hardware-in-loop testing of control systems and protective devices CAPS is acquiring a commercial real time simulation system sufficient to model a midsized ship system R-T simulator will be evaluated for performance with closely-coupled systems by studying the USCG Healy system Structure a research program focused on advancing the real time simulation capability
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Power Test Bed


CAPS is combining real-time simulation with power component testing in a hardware-in-the-loop facility to create a unique testing environment that will:
provide capability to control source and load characteristics for hardware under test to emulate an actual power system condition provide dynamic response to equipment under test provide wide range of voltages & frequencies provide the capability to create system configurations that model new designs and applications provide easy reconfiguration capability for diverse equipment under test
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CAPS Test Facility


To Hopkins Generation Plant
115 kV Transmission Lines Gas Turbine Generators (2) 2.5 MW To Perdom Generation Plant

G
12.47 kV Main Experimental Bus

(2) 30/40/50 MVA Transformers

Levi Steet Substation 5 MVA Transformer 12.47kV / 750 / 1500

Utility System Feeders to Feeders to Innovation Park NHMFL DC Experimental Bus Adjustable: 500 to 2000 V

CAPS System 5 MW Converter 4-Q Operation

3.5 MVA Transformer 12.47kV / 4160 HTS Substation

= ~

FCL
5 MVA Variable Voltage / Frequency Inverter

=
2 MW Bi-Directional Chopper BWX 100-MJ SMES Magnet Energy Storage

= ~

4160 V AC Experimental Bus

C
D

C
D

MCC
M
Test Machine and Controls

2.5 MVA Transformer 4160 / 450 V Experimental Loads

(2) 2.5 MW Dynamometers

5000 hp Motor Test Cell

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Summary and Conclusion


Only an integrated power system makes economic sense for warships
Large-scale use of power electronic devices in closecoupled systems cause harmonic problems at levels rarely encountered in utility or industrial environments All-electric ships need novel concepts for its integrated power system Building of knowledge base for modeling and simulation is needed Real-time simulation with power system components as hardware-in-the-loop will offer unique opportunity to study harmonic issues
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