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Chapter 7

RESPIRATION (Respirasi)

The need for energy leads to


Gl u c os e

Photosynthesis

Animals

in

RESPIRATION
Types of cell respiration adaptation for Large Surface area Aerobic include

in

Plants can be at

involve

Compensation point

Respiratory structures of Protozoa Insects Fish Amphibians c o m p a r i s o n

Anaerobic occurs under Conditions Conditions Smoking Significance

Humans

The process of Energy production Health of respiratory organs affects rate of on the rate of effects

occurs under and its

how

on

Gaseous exchange

Vigorous exercise & other factors Regulatory mechanisms

Breathing mechanisms

7.1 UNDERSTANDING THE RESPIRATORY PROCESS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

STATE THAT ALL LIVING PROCESSES REQUIRED ENERGY

Understanding the respiratory process in energy production


Transmission of nerve impulses

Muscle contraction

Active transport of biochemical substances

Energy Requirement

Formation of new protoplasm for growth

Cell division

Synthesis of proteins

IDENTIFY THE MAIN SUBSTRATE FOR PRODUCING ENERGY

The main substrate required in cellular respiration for producing energy is

Digestion of chd Photosynthesis in plants

STATE THE TWO TYPES OF RESPIRATION

TYPES OF RESPIRATION
1. External respiration
1. Is MECHANICAL process of taking air into lung

2. Internal respiration
1. Is BIOCHEMICAL process which occurs in living cell to RELEASE ENERGY inform of ATP

EXPLAIN WHAT CELL RESPIRATION IS

CELL RESPIRATION ( Internal Respiration )


The biochemical process in which energy is made available to all living cell

INVOLVE
1. of oxidizing GLUCOSE molecules to CO2, water, energy inform of ATP
glucose

oxidize

CO2

water

Energy (ATP)

2. Or internal resp. , tissue resp. ,cellular resp.

N
A A TYPES OF CELL RESPIRATION

E
R

E
R

O
B

O
B

I
C
RESPIRATION

I
C
RESPIRATION

Aerobic respiration
Breaking down of glucose in the PRESENCE of OXYGEN to release chemical energy In mitochondria

Anaerobic respiration
Occur in the ABSENCE of OXYGEN to release energy In cytoplasm

EXPLAIN THE ENERGY PRODUCTION FROM GLUCOSE DURING THE PROCESS OF AEROBIC RESPIRATION

ENERGY PRODUCTION IN AEROBIC RESPIRATION


FOOD -CARBOHYDRATES OXIDATION OF AIR CONSIST OF O2

GLUCOSE
MOLECULES

Releases of -- Energy-- Water-- CO2

Small portion = heat Larger portion = ATP from ADP phosphate bond broke down - energy

STATE THE CONDITIONS LEADING TO ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN CELLS

CONDITIONS LEADING TO ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN CELLS


Called ANAEROBES 1. VIGOROUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES (RUNNING IN A RACE) 2. ROOT OF PLANTS IN WATERLOGGED SOIL 3. MICROORGANISM (yeast) anaerobic and aerobic

4. SOME BACTERIA -obligate anaerobes

EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN YEAST

Absence of oxygen yeast converting glucose ethanol + CO2 Known as alcoholic fermentation or anaerobic resp
Glucose partly broken energy released lesser Widely used in baking industry
zymase

EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION IN HUMAN MUSCLES

Virgorous activity marathon, race Heart not able to provide sufficient O2 to muscle Muscle carry out ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Only small proportion of energy utilize from glucose

Initial stage: do aerobic respiration

Exercise PROGRESS [O2] drop because exceeds its supply


Decreasing O2 level, aerobic respiration , ATP reserved

Glucose LACTIC ACID. Small amount of energy released (150kJ = 2 ATP)

Insufficient O2 to break down lactate Oxygen debt build up in body

HIGH LEVELS of lactic acid lead to muscle fatigue and cramps

After vigorous activity, a person breathes more rapidly and deeply than normal to inhale more O2

The recovery period use to PAY BACK O2 debt

O2 dept paid back when all lactic acid is processed

WRITE THE CHEMICAL EQUATIONS FOR AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR AEROBIC RESPIRATION

CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION in yeast

CHEMICAL EQUATION FOR ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION in muscle

COMPARE AND CONTRAST AEROBIC RESPIRATION WITH ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION

Similarities
Both are cellular respiration Glucose is the main substrate Energy is produced

Comparing and contrasting aerobic respiration with anaerobic respiration Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration occur in mitochondria.

Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration occur in cytoplasm. Anaerobic respiration without utilising oxygen.

Aerobic respiration requires a continuous supply of oxygen.

The human experience normal breathing

The human experience fast and deep breathing

Aerobic respiration produces 38 ATP molecules.

Anaerobic respiration produces 2 ATP moleculues.

Aerobic respiration produces energy, water and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic respiration produces lactic acid, ethanol and energy in muscles.

a process of obtaining oxygen & delivering it to the cells for cellular respiration mechanical process to take in oxygen through diffusion across respiratory surface

is

Respiration Is needed to produce energy

2 stages
for is biochemical process to convert chemical energy in food molecules to Readily used energy Internal respiration

maintaining body temperature

is External respiration

is divided into
aerobic respiration carry out A series of biohemical reactions

carrying out living processes

anaerobic respiration break down glucose to produce

to Lactic acid & energy generate ATP

7.2

ANALYZING THE
RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES AND BREATHING MECHANISM IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL

STATE THE RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE IN HUMAN AND SOME ANIMALS

ORGANISM

RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE

Human Protozoa Insects Fish Amphibians

Lungs Plasma membrane Tracheal system Gills Skin and lungs

MAKE AN INFERENCE ON VARIOUS ADAPTATION OF THE RESPIRATORY STRUCTURES

RESPIRATORY STRUCTURE
Is specialised structure used by organism to help it respire
RESPIRATORY SURFACE

Is the surface which gas exchange occur

Small organism
Has simple respiratory structure
COMPLEX ORGANISM

Develop specialised organ for respiration for gaseous exchange Multicellular more complex form than unicellular Smaller surface area to volume ratio Longer distance if diffusion is only method Skin of some multicellular impermeable to gases Central body of these organism separate from the environment

DESCRIBE THE CHARACTERISTIC OF RESPIRATORY SURFACE IN HUMAN AND OTHER ORGANISM

characteristic of respiratory surface


Large total surface area
For gaseous exchange

Respiratory surface
Permeable

Minimize distance gas need to diffuse

Thin wall of respiratory surface

To diffuse O2 and CO2

Larger organism

For gas to dissolve

Moist respiratory surface

Good blood supply as transport medium Good ventilation mechanism

Surface area per volume Compare the two objects below. Which object has bigger surface area per volume? What conclusion can you made from here?

The larger the size of organisms, the smaller the surfaces area per unit volume of the organisms.

Unicellular organisms: plasma membrane provide enough surface area for gases transport through simple diffusion.

Larger organisms: need specialised respiratory structures for efficient gaseous exchange.

DESCRIBE THE BREATHING MECHANISM IN HUMAN AND OTHER ORGANISM

The human respiratory system


nasal cavity buccal cavity

pharynx epiglotis

larynx trachea ribs intercostal muscles bronchus lung

bronchiole

diaphragm

The human respiratory system


nasal cavity buccal cavity

pharynx epiglotis

larynx trachea ribs intercostal muscles bronchus lung

bronchiole

diaphragm

trachea

ribs

bronchus

intercostal muscles

bronchiole lung

diaphragm

bronchiole

rings of cartilage

alveoli

Gaseous exchange across the surface of the alveolus and blood capillaries in the lungs

Blood leaving the blood capillary has a higher partial pressure of oxygen and a lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide

inhaled air
alveolus

exhaled air

Blood entering the blood capillary has higher partial presure of carbon dioxide and a lower partial pressure of oxygen Carbon dioxide diffuses out of blood plasma
capillary wall blood capillary

High partial pressure of oxygen, low partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Oxygen diffuses into red blood cells

deoxygenated red blood cell

The human breathing mechanism

Rib cage moves upwards as the external intercostal muscles contract

air moves in lungs ribs diaphragms diaphragm contracts, moves down and flattens

air moves out


Rib cage moves downwards as the external intercostal muscles relax

diaphragm relaxes and curves upwards

Gaseous Exchange

What happen to your breathing rate after completing vigorous exercise? Why?

How about your heartbeat? Do you notice the change in the rate of your heartbeat? Your heartbeat becomes faster or slower? Why?

COMPARE AND COMNTAST THE HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM WITH THAT OF OTHER ORGANISM

Insect respiratory structure

Tracheal system
spiracles - openings on the sides of the thorax and abdomen usually one pair of spiracles per segment The tracheae are invaginations of the cuticular exoskeleton that branch throughout the body with diameters from only a few micrometers up to 0.8mm. The smallest tubes, tracheoles, penetrate cells and serve as sites of diffusion for oxygen and carbon dioxide

Fish respiratory structure

gills

Fish gills
The gills of bony fishes are covered by an operculum. They are four in number with intervening gill slits Branches of the afferent and efferent branchial arteries pass out to the tip of a gill filament on each side. A rich capillary network, cross-connecting these branches and at right angles to them, occupies each lamella. the water flows directly opposite to the flow of blood in the lamellar capillaries.

Amphibian
Frogs have three respiratory surfaces :
skin:
Frogs can breathe through their skin while they are in wet places. They can also exchange gases between the blood vessels in it, and with its outer environment. There are also mucus glands in the skin, these keep the skin moist. Their skin absorbs a lot of dissolved oxygen from the surrounding atmosphere.

the thin membranes lining its mouth and pharynx. the lungs.
Adult frogs have poorly developed lungs. Their lungs are used on dry land while the frogs are active. Gas exchanged by the lungs is used to make the vocal cords vibrate. They are located in the larynx, and are necessary for the sound generated by a frog.