KINGDOM ANIMALIA Characteristics of Animals

Characteristics of Life
1. Living things are organized. 2. Living things are made up of cells. 3. Living things metabolize. 4. Living things maintain an internal environment. 5. Living things grow. 6. Living things respond. 7. Living things reproduce. 8. Living things evolve.

Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species .

. mitochondrial heterotrophs—they have multiple cells with mitochondria and they rely on other organisms for their nourishment.Kingdom Animalia All animals are multicellular. Most animals ingest their food and then digest it in some kind of internal cavity.

Animal Species Somewhere around 9 or 10 million species of animals inhabit the earth. About 800.000 species have been identified. .

Animal Phyla Biologists recognize about 36 separate phyla within the Kingdom Animalia. .

Major Animal Phyla Mollusca 5% Arthropoda 87% Other 12% Chordata 2% Cnidaria 1% Platyhelminthes 1% Nematoda 1% Annelida 1% Porifera 1% Echinodermata 1% .

Animal Movement Most animals are capable of complex and relatively rapid movement compared to plants and other organisms. .

. Most animals are diploid.Animal Reproduction Most animals reproduce sexually. by means of differentiated haploid cells (eggs and sperm). meaning that the cells of adults contain two copies of the genetic material.

a mesozoan blue whale .Animal Sizes Animals range in size from no more than a few cells (like the mesozoans) to organisms weighing many tons (like the blue whale).

.Animal Habitats Most animals inhabit the seas. with fewer in fresh water and even fewer on land.

like all eukaryotic cells. Animal cells lack the rigid cell walls that characterize plant cells. have internal structures called organelles that serve specific functions for the cell.Animal Cells Animal cells. .

Animal Cell Diagram .

tissues are organized into even more specialized organs.Animal Bodies The bodies of most animals (all except sponges) are made up of cells organized into tissues. Each tissue is specialized to perform specific functions. . In most animals.

Most animals are bilaterally symmetrical. .Animal Symmetry The most primitive animals are asymmetrical. Cnidarians and echinoderms are radially symmetrical.

free-floating. or weakly swimming.Radial Symmetry …applies to forms that can be divided into similar halves by more than two planes passing through it. . Animals with radial symmetry are usually sessile.

.Bilateral Symmetry Animals with bilateral symmetery are most well-suited for directional movement.

Bilateral Symmetry .Radial vs.

.Cephalization Bilateral Symmetry usually has led to cephalization—the process by which sensory organs and appendages became localized in the head end of animals.

Multicellular body plan Bilaterally symmetrical body plan “Tube-within-a-tube” body plan Coelomate body plan . we find that they illustrate evolutionary trends.Evolutionary Trends If we analyze the basic body plans of animals. 3. 4. Four major “advances” (in order): 1. 2.

Acoelomates 2. ectoderm . Coelomates Each plan consists of 3 cell layers: endoderm.3 Major Bilateral Body Plans 1. mesoderm. Pseudocoelomates 3.

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Acoelomates These animals have no other cavity than the gut. They are often called the “solid worms.” .

Pseudocoelomates These animals have a body cavity (the pseudocoelom) which is not completely lined with mesoderm. This category is also composed of mostly worms. The “tube within a tube” body plan. .

Coelomates These animals have a “true coelom” lined with mesodermal peritoneum. . Most animals are coelomate.

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