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(B) Rusting as a Redox Reaction

OBJECTIVES After this lesson, you should be able to: • State the conditions for the rusting of iron • State what corrosion of metal is • Describe the process of rusting in terms of oxidation and reduction • Generate ideas on the use of other metals to control rusting • Explain with examples on the use of a more electropositive metal to control metal corrosion • Explain with examples on the use of a less electropositive metal to control metal corrosion • Describe efforts to prevent corrosion of metals

What is Rusting?
• Rusting is the corrosion of iron.
• When iron corrodes, it forms a flaky or powdery brown coating called rust.


Condition for Rusting of Iron • Two conditions are required at the same time for rusting to occur : (a) the presence of air(oxygen) (b) the presence of water 3 .

Corrosion of Metal  corrosion of metal is a redox reaction in which a metal is oxidized naturally to its ions. 4 . resulting in partial or complete destruction of the metal.

5 .Examples of corrosion of metal Iron rusting Silver tarnish (dull) Green substance formed on brass or bronze Gold and platinum are called noble metals because they are very unreactive metal and never corrode.

 When corrosion occurred. the metal surface loses its luster ( shine ) and become tarnished (dull).  If corrosion continues . the metal will be ‘eaten’ up by rust and break 6 .

M(s)  Mn+(aq) + ne- 7 .  This is because a more electropositive metal can easily loses its electrons to form positive ions.Corrosion of Metal  The more electropositive a metal is. the easier for it to corrode.

 Sodium and potassium are very reactive and must be kept in paraffin oil to protect them from oxidized by air and water.  Aluminium corrodes quickly in the air to form a coating of a tightly packed and non-porous aluminium oxide. 8 . Al2O3  This aluminium oxide prevents the aluminium underneath from further corrosion.

weak and easily crack.  These protective oxide coating prevent the metals from further corrosion. chromium and nickel also form hard metal oxides that are impermeable to water and air. 9 . form oxide layers that are porous and not tightly packed. Lead.  Magnesium and iron when corroded. zinc.

Rusting as a Redox Reaction Oxidizing Agent : Reducing Agent : oxygen Iron 10 .

Fe(s)  Fe2+ (aq) + 2e- 11 .Mechanism of Rusting • The surface of iron in the middle of the water droplet act as anode. • The iron is oxidized to iron(II) ion. Fe2+ by the loss of e-.

• The iron surface there acts as cathode.Mechanism of Rusting • The e.are gained by oxygen and is reduced to hydroxide ion.released by iron flow to the edge of the water droplet where there is plenty of dissolved oxygen. • The e. 4OH (aq) 12 . OH • O2 (g) + 2H2O(l) + 4e.

2Fe(s) + O2 (g) + 2H2O(l)  2Fe(OH)2 (s) iron(II) hydroxide 13 . Fe(OH)2. OH to form iron(II) hydroxide. Fe2+ combined with the hydroxide ions.Mechanism of Rusting • The iron(II) ions.

14 . • This hydrated iron(III) oxide is called rust.Mechanism of Rusting • The iron(II) hydroxide. Fe(OH)2 is not stable. Fe2O3.xH2O. • It is then rapidly oxidized by oxygen to form brown hydrated iron(III) oxide.

Factors affect the rate of Rusting • The presence of acids • The presence of electrolytes (salt solution) • The presence of contact metal 15 .

Factors affect the rate of Rusting • Rusting occurs faster in the presence of acids and salts solution. rusting of iron occurs more rapidly in areas – near the sea (contains salts vapours) – in industrial areas (polluted by acidic gases such as NO2 and SO2 ) 16 . • These substance increase the electrical conductivity of water. • Thus. making it a better electrolyte.

more readily than iron to form Mg2+. • Mg corrodes instead of the iron. The oxygen gains the electrons and is reduced to hydroxide ions.release by Mg flow to the iron. rusting is prevented.Factors affect the rate of Rusting • When iron is in contact with a more electropositive metal. • This is because Mg can lose its e. such as Mg. • The e. 17 .

• The iron will corrode more rapidly. • Thus.and rusted. rusting occurs faster.Factors affect the rate of Rusting • When iron is in contact with a less electropositive metal. such as Cu. • This is because the Fe can lose its electrons more readily than Cu. 18 . the Fe loses e.

19 . oil. grease or put on plastic coating to protects the iron surface from in contact with air and water. chromium or nickel.Prevention of Rusting • Apply paint. • Plating iron with tin or chromium • Galvanizing iron with zinc • Using the sacrificial metal (more electropositive metal) • Alloying iron with carbon.

Practice B1 1. State the condition required for metal to rust? 2. Assume the formula of rust as Fe2O3. 3(a) What is meant by ‘Galvanized iron’? (b) Explain why galvanized iron does not rust when its surface is scratched. (a) Write the chemical equation for the rusting of iron. 20 .H2O (b) explain why a layer of grease applied on to an iron object will prevent iron from rusting.