Digital Transmission Hierarchies


Plesio means = similar Chronous means= Timing Plesiochronous . Although this clocks are extremely accurate.Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchies (PDH) If two digital signals are plesiochoronous then their transitions occur at “almost” the same rate.   . because bits are stuffed into the frames as padding and the calls (signal) location varies slightly . there is a difference between one clock and the other.from frame to frame". with any variation being constrained within tight limits."almost synchronous.

PDH Multiplexing Structure  Primary Multiplexing : The basic function of a Primary Multiplexer is to multiplex several telephony channels (voice and signalling) into a digital line signal. also data channels (e.g. The line signal has a bit rate of 2048 kBit/s (European standard) and is suitable for transmission and to be multiplexed to higher order bit rates. . Of course. computer links) can be multiplexed instead of voice channels.The analogue voice signals are sampled and converted into a digital code (Pulse Code Modulation) that can be easily processed further by using Time Division Multiplex. The principle of multiplexing is very similar.

this is because the multiplexer must transmit one byte from all tribs in the same length of time that it takes to receive one byte from one tributary .Multiplexing Principles •The input signals to the Multiplexer are called Tributaries(Tribs) •The output signal (multiplexed signal) is called the Aggregate •For the tributaries to be multiplexed all tribs must be operating at exactly the same speed •The speed of the aggregate must be at least the sum of all the trib speeds.

Multiplexing Principles Input signals are called Tributaries(Tri bs) Mux The output signal is called the aggregate .

30 Channel PCM Frame Time Slots (TS) 0 Channels for speech or data 1-15 16 Channels for speech or data 16 .30 31 TS0 for frame alignment .

000th of a second) Frame Rate : 32 x 64 Kbps = 2. TS 16 is used to carry signaling information from the telephones to the Telephone Exchange and vice versa.048 Mbps . Frame Size : 32 Bytes (256 Bits) Frame Duration : 125 us (1/8.      Although the frame contains 30 Telephone channels. a total of 32 Time slots are multiplexed. TS 0 is used to transmit a set pattern of bits continuously so that the receiver can locate and lock on to the start of the frame. in this way all the channels can be demultiplexed and connected to the correct tributaries.

Tributary signals can only be accessed at the level from which they were multiplexed 140 34 140M LTE 140M LTE Inflexible : Slow provision of services Expensive : Lots of equipment required 34 8 8 2 Customer .

Difficulty interworking between Europe and North America North American Bit Rates X4 1.5 Mbps X 24 DS1 DS2 6 Mbps X7 45 Mbps X6 275 Mbps DS3 64 Kbps European Bit Rates X 32 2 Mbps X4 8 Mbps X4 34 Mbps Max Transmission rate limited to 565 Mbps X4 140 Mbps X4 565 Mbps First Order (E1) Second Order (E2) Third Order (E3) Fourth Order (E4) .

the operation of providing him a single 2 Mbps from within that channel is not simple The use of justification bits at each levels in the PDH. the channels must be Remultiplexed back up to 140 Mbps for onward Transmission .PDH Limitations      The problem in a plesiochronous network is illustrated by considering what a network operator has to be able to provide a business customer with a 2 Mbps leased line If the high speed channel passes near to the customer. means that identifying the exact location of the frame from a single 2Mbps line within a 140 Mbps channel is impossible To access a single 2 Mbps line the 140 Mbps channel must be demultiplexed to it‟s 64 constituent 2 Mbps lines via 34 and 8 Mbps Once the required 2 Mbps has been identified and extracted .

Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Management is very inflexible in PDH. STM-4 (622Mb/s) is 4 x STM-1 and STM-16 (2. STM-1 (155Mb/s) is 63 x E1. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) originates from Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) in the US. It includes capabilities for bandwidth on demand and is also made up of multiples of E1. . so SDH was developed.5Gb/s) is 4 x STM-4.


called VCs The containers can be combined into std formats in order to form the payload of the STM-1 signal Different containers can be mixed.SDH Multiplexing Structure       The first level of the SDH is at 155. At present . allowing for different rates to be carried simultaneously within the same structure .52 Mbps and is known as a Synchronous Transport Module level 1(STM-1) Signal Higher rates are integer multiples of the first level bit rate and are denoted by the corresponding multiplication factor of the first level rate. the following rates constitute the synchronous hierarchy STM-1 = 155 Mbps STM-4 = 622 Mbps STM-16 = 2.5 Gbps STM -64 = 10 Gbps The SDH allows for any of the current transmission rates except 8 Mbps to be mapped into containers.

SDH Multiplexing elements Container(C-n). and alarm status indicators  . signals for maintenance purposes.e. n = 1 to 4 The lower order VC-ns (n = 1 or 2) are built up of the basic container (C-n. 1. together with the appropriate POH information The POH information includes VC path performance monitoring.702 (i.5 Mbps and 2 Mbps)  Virtual Container (VC-n). n =1 or 2) plus additional capacity to carry POH information The higher order VC-ns (n = 3 or 4) are built up of either a single basic container (C-n. n = 1 to 4 This is the basic element of the STM signal consisting of a group of bytes allocated to carry the Transmission rates defined in ITU-T recommendation G. n = 3 or 4) or an assembly of Tributary unit groups .

SDH Multiplexing elements Tributary Unit (TU-n). n = 1 to 3 This element consists of a VC plus a Tributary unit pointer and provides adaption between the lower order path layer and the higher order path layer The pointer value indicates the phase alignment of the VC wrt to the higher order VC it is added to.  . The location of the pointer is fixed wrt to this higher order VC The TU can be considered as the space within the higher order VC which is reserved for the lower order VC payload.

SDH Multiplexing elements Tributary Unit Group (TUG-n). The location of the pointer is fixed within the STM-1 frame structure The AU can be considered as „the space‟ within the STM frame which is reserved for the high order VC payload  . The pointer value indicates the phase alignment of the VC-n with respect to the STM-1 frame. n = 2 or 3 This element is formed by a group of identical TUs or TUGs allowing mixed capacity payloads to be constructed  Administrative Unit (AU-n). n =3 or 4 This elements consists of a VC-n (n = 3 or 4) plus an AU pointer and provides adaption between the higher order paths and the multiplexer section layer .

SDH Multiplexing elements Administrative Unit Group (AUG) This element is formed by a group of byte interleaved AU s.430 Bytes)  . The AUG has a fixed position in the STM payload  Synchronous Transport Module Level 1(STM-1) This Is the basic element of the SDH and comprises a single AUG and the SOH information. The STM-1 frame structure comprises an array of 270 columns by 9 rows of 8 bytes (2.

349 Bytes Frame Size = 2.STM-1 frame structure 9 Bytes 261 Bytes RSOH 9 Bytes AU Pointers MSOH Payload 2.430 Bytes Frame Duration = 125 Us .

STM-1 Overhead A1 RSOH A1 m m B2 A1 m m B2 A2 E1 D2 K1 D5 D8 D11 A2 m m A2 J0 F1 D3 K2 D6 D9 D12 res res res res B1 D1 B2 D4 AU pointers MSOH D7 D10 S1 M1 E2 SOH .

A2 = Framing ( These bytes are used for frame alignment purposes) J0 RS Path Trace = Regenerator section path trace B1 BIP = Used to provide an error monitoring function for a regenerator section E1 Order Wire = Used to provide an order wire channel which may be accessed at regenerators and multiplexers F1 user channel = Reserved for user purposes D1 to D3 DCCr = The Data communication channel bytes provides a 192 Kbps regenerator data channel. .RSOH       A1.

K2 APS Channel = These bytes are used for APS protocol E2 Order Wire = Used to provide an order wire channel which may be accessed only at multiplexer section terminations.Z2 Spare = Function not allowed . S Sync = Synchronous status messaging Z1. M1 MS REI Errors = Multiplex section REI for detected B2 errors D4 to D12 DCCm = The Data communication channel bytes provides a 576 Kbps multiplex telemetry channel.MSOH        B2 BIP = Used to provide an error monitoring function for the multiplex section K1.

VC-4 POH (HO POH) J1 = Path Trace Used to provide a fixed length string which is transmitted repetitively So that the receiving terminal can verify connection to the intended transmitter B3 = Path BIP Provides an error monitoring function for the VC-4 path C2 = Signal Label Used to indicate the composition of the VC4 payloads G1 = Path Status Used to convey path terminating status and performance Information back to the VC-4 path originator F2 = Path User Channel User communication purposes between path elements H4= Multiframe indicator Provides a generalized multiframe indicator for payloads K3 = Spare N1 = Network operator Byte May be used for tandem connection maintenance VC4 Payload 2.349 Bytes VC4 Path overhead .

Thank You .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful