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peripheral nerve
Peripheral nerves include: cranial nerves, spinal nerves. It is made up of bundle of nerve fibers, both myelinated and unmyelinated. On naked eye examination, it appears whitish and glistening because of their myelin and collagen content. Examples: median nerve, ulnar nerve, sciatic nerve

peripheral nerve (cont.)

Epineurium: it is sheath of dense irregular C.T. around peripheral nerve. Perineuriun:
it is C.T sheath around each fascicle or bundle of nerve fibers. This is made by many concentric layers of epitheloid cells joined together by tight junctions . Perineurium acts as a barrier to the passage of materials.

endoneurium: it is thin layer of C.T. around each nerve fiber. It is composed of delicate collagenous and reticular fibers and fibroblasts.

peripheral nerve (l.s.)

How to draw it!

peripheral nerve- identification points

Bundles of nerve fibers Myelin sheath is seen as unstained area Endoneurium, perineurium and epineurium is visible


Ganglia: It is collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS Ganglia are ovoid structures associated with peripheral nerve. microsopically and functionally the ganglia are of two types:
Craniospinal (sensory) ganglia Autonomic ganglia

Common features of both types of ganglia:

Both types of ganglia have C.T. capsule. The body of each ganglion cell is surrounded by satellite cells

Cranio Spinal ganglia

Cranial ganglia Spinal ganlia (dorsal root ganglia) C.T. Capsule Ganglion cells are pseudounipolar neurons ***
Each cell has a single process which bifurcates in a T-shaped manner. One of the two processes acts as dendrite and passes to periphery to terminate at a receptor organ The othe branch acts as axon and passes to CNS.

The nerve impulses pass from the periphery to CNS, bypassing the cell body. So the cell body form no synapses and performs an exclusively trophic function.

Cranio Spinal ganglia (cont.)

The nerve cell bodies are arranged as groups in the peripheral zone of the ganglion. Each ganglion cell is surrounded by a single layer of low cuboidal cells are called as satellite cells Central zone of the sensory ganglion shows great predominance of nerve fibers

Dorsal root ganglion

dorsal root ganglion- identification points

Connective tissue capsule present Pseudounipolar neurons surrounded by satellite cells

Dorsal root ganglion- how to draw it!

Autonomic Ganglia
These ganglia are associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic ANS. These ganglia contain multipolar neurons:
Each ganglion cell has many dendrites and a single axon. Dendrites receive synapses from the incoming preganglionic nerve fibers Axon passes out as postganglionic fiber.

Cranio Spinal Cranial nerve ganglia Spinal ganglia Autonomic Sympathetic Parasympathetic

Cranio Spinal ganglia ganlionic cells are present as groups in the ganglion. Variable size of the ganglion cells Pseudo unipolar cells Sensory No synapse +++ satellite cells complete capsule of satellite cells

Autonomic ganglia Evenly distributed Uniform size Multipolar cells Secretomotor ++ synapse + satellite cells incomplete capsule of satellite cells