You are on page 1of 32

TCI: Industrialism and the Progressive Response

California State Standard: 11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization, large scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration form Southern and Eastern Europe

United States History Mr. Albert Celis NOW Academy

California State Standards: 11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization, large scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe 1. Know the effects of industrialization on living and working conditions. 2. Describe the changing landscape, including the growth of cities linked by industry and trade, and the development of cities divided according to race, ethnicity, and class. 4. Analyze the effect of urban political machines and responses to them by immigrants and middle class reformers 5. Discuss corporate mergers that produced trusts and cartels and the economic and political policies of industrial leaders. 6. Trace the economic development of the United States and its emergence as a major industrial power, including its gains from trade and the advantages of its physical geography. 9. Understand the effect of political programs and activities of the Progressives.

2.2A: The Rise of Industrialism


What do you see in this slide? How many women do you see? What are they doing? How was this kind of work done before sewing machines were invented? How do you think using sewing machines changed these womens work? How might widespread use of machines have changed American society? In this slide we see seamstresses working in a textile factory around the turn of the century.

2.2A: The Rise of Industrialism


The rise of industrialism - a change in production from hand craftsmanship to machine manufacturing meant that more goods began to be produced by machines. Sweeping technological developments brought about major societal changes, ranking the United States first in the world for industrial goods. Key factors in Industrial Growth: First, an abundant supply of natural resources such as coal, oil, and iron. Second, improved transportation methods expanded trade from coast to coast. Third, the American population shifted from rural areas to urban centers.

2.2B: Invention and Innovation


What do you see here? What do you see on the top of the building? Why do you think the builders are making it higher? What technological advancements allowed the construction of such buildings? Why do you think buildings such as this one were necessary in an increasingly urbanized age? In this slide we see a skyscraper that was built in New York City in 1901.

2.2B: Invention and Innovation


The Spirit of Innovation - between 1860 and 1900, the U.S. Patent Office granted over 676,000 patents to inventors of machines, techniques, and tools. Steel Is King - No single innovation affected technological change more than the development of steel production. Electricity Becomes Widespread - The introduction of electricity for widespread commercial and domestic use spurred innovation in technology. Machines Increase Production - Inventors attention to machines created a rush of new production methods.

2.2C: Industrial Leaders


What do you see here? Describe the man on the left? What are the other people doing? Why do you thin the man is the focus of so much attention? What do you think he does for a living? This is John D. Rockefeller; founder of Standard Oil Company, one of the largest U.S. corporations around 1900. How might men like Rockefeller have helped industrialize the United States. In this slide we see John D. Rockefeller, founder of Standard Oil Company.

2.2C: industrial Leaders


Industrial Giants - Industrialism led to enormous business enterprises, pioneered by men who possessed a combination of leadership, bold risk taking, long-range vision, and competitive drive. As their companies became wealthy and powerful, so did the owners, whose names acquired household fame that overshadowed that of former statesmen. John D. Rockefeller and Oil - Came to control 90 percent of the oil industry in the country. He attempted to monopolize the oil industry Andrew Carnegie and Steel - A contemporary of Rockefellers, was equally successful in big business. Carnegies company produced one fourth of the nations steel.

2.2D: Trust and Government Corruption


What do you see here? Whom do the men standing, wearing top hats, represent? Who are the men at the desks? What is the significance of the closed door in the upper left corner? What is the intended message of the cartoonist? In this slide we see a cartoon entitled Bosses of the Senate from Puck magazine. The cartoon shows the huge trusts and monopolies overseeing the work of the U.S. Senate - which, according to the cartoon, is of, by, and for the monopolists.

2.2D: Trusts and Government Corruption


The Rise of Industrial Trust - As industrialism progressed, businesses combined competing companies into monstrous firms called trusts. Trusts had centralized management; stockholders placed their stocks in trustees hands to make all decisions for the firm about prices, use of raw materials, and labor relations. Trusts Influence Government Affairs - As they became rich and powerful, owners of trusts manipulated the government at the federal, state, and local levels. Industrial giants ran for government offices, made generous contributions to political candidates, and bribed legislators.

2.2E: Criticism and Defense of Big Business


What do you see here? How are these men dressed? What does their appearance reveal about their status in society? Who do you think is the richest man in the group? Why? How do you think these men became so wealthy? Do wealthy businessmen benefit the United States? In this slide we see Andrew Carnegie (center, with the white beard) surrounded by a group of business leaders.

2.2E: Criticism and Defense of Big Business


Wealthy Americans Face Criticism - By the turn of the century, the grand monopolies and their wealthy owners began to face public criticism. Critics of big business decried the wide gap between the wealth and power of industrialists and average Americans. The material worth of 1 percent of the population was greater than that of the other 99 percent combined. Industrialists Defend Big Business - They argued that they had taken the greatest risks in investing their resources into industries and therefore were entitled to business profits.

2.2F: The Impact of Industrialism


What do you se here? Where are these men working? Under what conditions do they work? What hazards might they face? How would you feel if you had to work long hours in this steel mill?

In this slide we see steel workers in Andrew Carnegies steel mill in Homestead, Pennsylvania. Hard manual labor, dangerous working conditions, low pay, and long hours were typical of the jobs in most of the factories that flourished during the Industrial era.

2.2F: The Impact of Industrialism


Industrialization Benefits the Middle Class - National wealth and income grew significantly between the late 1800s and the 1920s. Many middle-class Americans experienced greater comforts and conveniences in daily life. Life for Average Americans - Viewed industrialism through a lens of drudgery and hardship. The majority of the population still used candlepower in their homes, had no indoor plumbing or heating, cooked on wood-fed stoves, and could not afford a telephone. Industrial Working Conditions - American laborers often faced deplorable working conditions. Men and women regularly worked 10 to 12 hours a day, six days a week.

2.2G: Change and Discrimination in the Work Force


What do you see here? Where was the photograph taken? Describe the people in the photograph? How old are they? What are they doing? How many hours do you think they work a day? What would it be life to work under these conditions? What problems might it cause?

In this slide we see coal miners, most of whom are boys, in Pennsylvania.

2.2G: Change and Discrimination in the Work Force


Industrialism and Women - Industrialists recruited women, children, and immigrants to play greater roles in industrial production. In particular, young, single women carved a niche in newly created secretarial and sales positions in city department stores and white collar offices. Child Labor - Approximately 1.75 million child laborers joined the industrial work force in the late 1800s. Boys and girls worked up to 15 hours a day in coal mines, canning factories, tobacco plants, and garment factories. Minority and Immigrant Laborers - While white laborers worked in both skilled and unskilled jobs, nonwhite laborers were forced into mostly unskilled positions with low wages.

2.2H: Organized Labor


What do you see here? Who are the people in the upper left? Who are the people holding guns? What do you think is happening? Why are the soldiers aiming guns at the workers? What does this picture reveal about labor management relations at this time? In this slide we see strikers at a textile mill in Lawrence, Massachusetts, being held back by federal troops.

2.2H: Organized Labor


Labor Unions Emerge - As working conditions worsened and income disparity increased, laborers began organizing in unions with the hope that collectively they could influence big business. Several labor unions led the way for confrontation and negotiation with business leaders. Labor unions aimed to secure and 8 hour workday, income tax, and the elimination of child labor, and equal pay for men and women. Business Response to Labor - Businesses mounted fierce resistance to unions fight for more money and power. Strikes and Violence - As relations between businesses and labor unions in many industries soured and broke down, more unions went on strike.

2.2I: Food Contamination and Muckrakers


What do you see here? What is the man doing? What is he examining? Why? What message do you think the cartoonist is trying to convey? Why do you think there were strong concerns about food contamination around the turn of the century? What conditions might have caused these concerns?

In this slide we see a political cartoon depicting public enthusiasm for food inspection in the early 1900s.

2.2I: Food Contamination and Muckrakers


Consumer Fraud - Consumers had no safeguard against poor-quality products or misleading advertising. Canned foods contained dangerous chemical additives hidden from consumers in containers without ingredient labels. The Meatpacking Industry - As unethical practices rose, government and newspaper journalist and writers began calling attention to them. Upton Sinclair investigated the meatpacking industry and wrote a scathing novel entitled The Jungle. Muckrakers - Sinclair was part of a group of writers named muckrakers. Muckrakers concentrated on exposing ills in society, political corruption, suppression of racial minorities, slum conditions, and dishonest business practices.

2.2J: The Toll on the Environment


What do you see here? What is being extracted from the ground? How? What would it be like to work in this environment? What do you think the hillside looked like before? Why do you think oil fields such as this one became increasingly important in an age of industrialization?

In this slide we see a hillside bristling with oil derricks and drillers shanties in Pioneer Run, Pennsylvania in 1865.

2.2J: The Toll on the Environment


Environmental Impact Mining and Deforestation Air and Water Pollution Environmental Reformers