Participative Leadership Behavior
Types of Participate Leadership Behavior
Consulting with Groups Asking for opinions about alternatives Joint decision making with followers Participative Leadership Behaviors Consulting with Individuals Obtaining information from followers
Delegation Do’s and Don’ts
Do • Understand your authority & responsibilities. • Clearly communicate performance req’ts • Make followers responsible • Delegate challenging responsibilities • Show confidence in followers’ abilities • Reward accomplishment • • • • • • Avoid Lack of agreement on authority & responsibility Lack of understanding on objectives Involvement of followers not trained Showing a lack of confidence Requiring nothing less than perfection Making followers insecure
Used together. yet still be directive by following up closely on progress toward the ends that have been mutually decided on.Participative Leadership vs Directive Leadership
• Participative leadership deals with making decisions. • Directive leadership most often deals with executing a decision once it has been made. • A leader can be participative by consulting employees during the decision-making phase.
. PL & DL can be an effective leadership approach.
Can Participative Behavior ever be Ineffective?
• Yes! • When leader has already made decision and is merely going through the motions of inclusion • When situation environment is weak and participation viewed as “gimmick” to manipulate.
How to Be Participative: Skills and Power Bases
Conflict Management Skills Self-monitoring Skills Listening Skills
Skills. and Sources of Power Expert Power Resource/connection power Legitimate Power
Traits. and Sources of Power Expert Power Resource/connection power Legitimate Power
.How to Be Participative: Skills and Power Bases
Conflict Management Skills Self-monitoring Skills Listening Skills
Who is Likely to Use Participative Leadership?
• Leaders who have much work experience or who are highly educated • Leaders who perceive their followers as being competent. when follower acceptance of the decision is essential.
. or when followers share the organization’s goals. possessing essential information.
Participative Behaviors Around the World
• In many developing countries such as Mexico and China.values other than participation are often emphasized. In these countries. such as obedience. Norway and former Yugoslavia workers’ counsels are established by law to advise high-level decision makers. and respect for authority. submission. • In Sweden. Other companies place union members on the BODs. participative leadership may not be effective.
• Experts agree the informal approach yields more productivity than legislated approach. It is based on personal relationships between leaders and followers.Participative Behaviors Around the World
• In US and Japan. not by legislation. participative leadership is more informal and flexible. Leaders may have individual or group meetings and can adapt their approach to the requirements of the situation.
An Interesting Discovery
In a study.
.Participative Behaviors Around the World . but most of the leaders outside the US did not trust the average follower’s capability to show initiative and share leadership responsibilities. researchers found leaders in all countries professed a belief in the importance of participation.
thereby satisfying needs for self esteem and accomplishment • Contributes to motivation and commitment to decisions
.Reasons Participative Leadership Works with Followers
• Allows reflection on issues that affect them • Provides opportunity to utilize untapped talents which satisfies need for competence and selffulfillment • Make significant contributions to a valued group.
work and organization • Motivation and commitment to decisions Organizational Benefits: • Increased performance and productivity • Quality of decisions • Development of followers’ potential
. self control. and personal growth • Satisfaction with supervisor.Impact of Participative Leadership
Follower Benefits: • Satisfaction of needs for competence. independence.
6) Followers are highly competent and possess knowledge and information to make an effective decision. 3) Followers’ work tasks are highly predictable and repetitive with no variation in the methods for completion. 2) Followers’ acceptance and commitment are needed to successfully implement a decision. 7) An extensive set of written rules.Situations Where Participation may or may notonbe Effective for 1) Followers are working tasks that are very important
organization’s success. and procedures exist to direct followers . regulations. 5) The leader and followers work in an environment that is extremely uncertain and rapidly changing.
. 8) Followers have high needs for independence and seek opportunities for achievement and self-fulfillment. 4) The leader must make an emergency decision immediately with very little time to gather input and information.
Situational Factors that Increase Effectiveness of Participative Leadership
•Job competence. relevant information •Needs for independence and growth •Internal locus of control •Expect participation
Group and Leader Characteristics
•Group harmony •Trust in leader
•Good leader skills in conflict management
•Important task •Requires followers’ commitment •Uncertainty
followers willing to accept autocratic leadership
.Situational Factors that Decrease Effectiveness
Large group size Highly structured or complex task
Factors that Decrease Effectiveness
Passive followers. authoritarian followers.
. regulations.Situational Factors that Replace the Need for Participative Leadership
Leadership Process Model for Participative Leadership
Enhancers of Participativeness Replacements for Participativeness Follower Psychological Reactions Follower Behavioral Outcomes
Neutralizers of Participativeness
•Drawing out and listening to followers •Holding meetings to share problems & gather input •Giving serious consideration to followers’ input •Reaching consensus with followers and leaders as equals •Delegating decisions to capable followers
Enhancers of Participativeness
ENHANCERS OF PARTICIPATIVENESS •Task importance •Task requires followers’ commitment •Environment uncertainty •leader’s conflict-management skills •Group harmony •Followers’ job competence and information •Followers’ need for independence •Followers’ internal locus of control •Expected participation
Neutralizers of Participation
NEUTRALIZERS OF PARTICIPATIVENESS
•Highly structured task •Task complexity with professional followers •Large group size •Short deadlines •Passive followers •Authoritarian followers •Followers willing to accept autocratic leadership
Replacements for Participative Leadership
REPLACEMENTS FOR PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP
•Many formal rules
work. selfcontrol. and organization •Motivation and commitment to decisions
.Follower Psychological Reactions
FOLLOWER PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS •Satisfaction of needs for competence. and personal growth •Satisfaction with supervisor. independence.
Follower Behavioral Outcomes
FOLLOWER BEHAVIORAL OUTCOMES
•Increased performance and productivity •High quality decisions •Professional development of followers •Possible resistance by some followers •Decision requires extra time
Applying the Model of Participative Leadership
1) Diagnosing the Situation
3) Modify Followers and/or Situations
2) Providing Participative Leadership
then followers will expect and value participative leadership. and expect to participate? •Is the leader effective in obtaining follower input and skilled at conflict management? •Is there much environment uncertainty? If “yes” to one or more AND no neutralizers present. independence. and selffulfillment. is their commitment essential to carryout leader’s decisions? •Do followers value achievement. feel harmony and trust with the leader.
. view themselves as controlling their own lives.Diagnosing the Situation
1) Diagnosing the Situation •Are followers highly competent and knowledgeable. do they work on important tasks.
Providing Participative Leadership
2) Providing Participative Leadership Leader demonstrates Participative behaviors with followers by: •Holding informal conversations with individuals to obtain information related to decisions •Sharing decision problems w/groups to solicit ideas and suggestions •Assigning a decision problem to competent followers •Inviting input and discussion on points of disagreement •Allowing “air time” for all followers who want to participate •Explaining why ideas or solutions are not implemented to followers
Modifying Followers and/or Situations
3)Modifying Followers and/or situations Leaders also act to: •Increase formal rules that prescribe how to deal with emergencies & short-term deadlines •Redesign tasks to increase their importance •Build group harmony •Develop followers’ competence and knowledge •Eliminate highly structured tasks and large groups •Reassign passive and authoritarian followers