You are on page 1of 41

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts

Bangalore April 2007

For internal use 1 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Physical Layer Changes introduced for HSDPA

Shorter Radio Frame(2ms instead of 10ms) New Downlink Data and Control Channel CDM combined with TDM 16 QAM Modulation Type (in addition to QPSK) New Uplink Control Channel Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ) New UE Capability Classes

For internal use 2 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HSDPA Frame Structure

The HSDPA radio frame is 2 ms in lengthequivalent to three of the currently defined W-CDMA slots It is actually a sub-frame in the W-CDMA architecture of 10ms There are five HSDPA sub-frames in a 10 ms W-CDMA frame, as shown in the Figure. The shorter frame size allows the UE to inform the network about failures every 2ms The network can respond more quickly to changing channel conditions and re-assign the capacity amongst users

For internal use 3 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

New HSDPA Channels

For internal use 4 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

New HSDPA Channels


DOWNLINK:
New Transport Channel: HS-DSCH: High Speed Downlink Shared Channel New Physical Channels: HS-PDSCH: High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel
Payload data HS-SCCH: High Speed Shared Control Channel UE identity and HS-DSCH coding info

UPLINK:
New Physical Channels: HS-DPCCH: High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel
ACK, NAK and CQI (Channel Quality Indicator)
For internal use 5 Nokia Siemens Networks HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Downlink Physical Channel: HS-PDSCH


Used to carry the HS-DSCH transport channel data Fixed Spreading Factor of 16 (SF = 16), A set of channelization codes (upto 15) are reserved for HS-DSCH transmission Turbo Coding (1/3) is used for channel coding Uses 16QAM Modulation scheme in addition to QPSK

HS-PDSCH

For internal use 6 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HS-PDSCH Configuration

For internal use 7 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HS-PDSCH Structure
Data rate varies according Modulation Technique applied (QPSK/16QAM) Total no. of bits in a slot = M x 10 x 2K;
where k = 4, M = 2 or 4(QPSK or 16QAM) SF = 256/2k Max. Channel bit rate = 15 x 960 kbps = 14400 kbps, But this is the data rate after coding is applied

For internal use 8 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HS-PDSCH Channel coding


Max. one transport block every TTI(2ms) CRC Length = 24 bits Bit Scrambling to remove continuous 0s or 1s Max. code block size = 5114 bits (Turbo Coding) Channel coding = 1/3 Rate Turbo Coding Hybrid-ARQ 2 Stage Rate Matching Bits are mapped onto (up to 15) HS-PDSCH(s) Interleaving for each HS-PDSCH Different 16QAM constellations are defined Mapping to different HS-PDSCH(s)

For internal use 9 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Hybrid Automatic Repeat ReQuest (HARQ)


Hybrid
Feed forward error correction, using turbo coding ARQ : Feedback error correction

The Erroneous packets are not discarded but are combined with the
retransmissions

For internal use 10 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Combining retransmissions
To minimize the number of additional re-transmission requests HARQ can be operated in two different ways :

with identical retransmissions or with non-identical retransmissions

Chase combining (CC) or Soft Combining


involves sending an identical version of an erroneously detected packet; received copies are combined by the decoder prior to decoding

Incremental redundancy (IR)


involves sending a different set of bits incrementally to be combined with the original set, thus increasing the amount of redundant data and the likelihood of recovering from errors introduced on the air

For internal use 11 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Two Stage rate matching for IR

For internal use 12 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HS-PDSCH Channel coding - Example

For internal use 13 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Downlink Physical Channel: HS-SCCH


Used to carry the control information needed for HS-DSCH decoding Fixed Spreading Factor of 128 (SF = 128) UE monitors one or more (upto 4) HS-SCCH channels to know when to receive
data

Uses QPSK modulation scheme

For internal use 14 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HS-SCCH Structure
Slot #0 carries modulation information of HS-PDSCH:
Channelization Code Set (7 bits) (OVSF code assignment) Modulation Scheme: QPSK or 16QAM (1 bit) Slot #1, #2 carry channel-coding information of HS-DSCH: Transport-block size (6 bits) Hybrid-ARQ process information (3 bits) Redundancy and constellation version (RV) (3 bits) New Data Indicator (NDI) (1 bit) The data of the 3 slots are covered with the 16 bit UE identity

For internal use 15 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HSDPA - Downlink Physical Channel Timing


The NodeB transmits two slots of the HS-SCCH sub-frame before it begins
transmitting the HS-PDSCH.

The HS-SCCH and HS-PDSCH thus overlap during a slot (the third slot of the HSSCCH).

The 1st slot contains information of the channelization code set and modulation The UE must quickly decode the HS-SCCH, so that that UE does not miss the HSPDSCH

For internal use 16 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Uplink Physical Channel: HS-DPCCH


Used to carry the feedback information for HS-DSCH transmission
Acknowledgments (ACK) and Negative Acknowledgements (NAK) Channel Quality Indicators to indicate quality of downlink transmission

Fixed Spreading Factor of 256 (SF = 256) Uses BPSK Modulation scheme (One each for every HSDPA user)

For internal use 17 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HS-DPCCH Structure
The 1st slot contains HARQ-ACK, 2nd and 3rd slots contains CQI The HARQ-ACK information (1 bit) is coded to 10 bits,
ACK coded as 1111111111 NAK coded as 0000000000 The CQI information is coded using a (20,5) code The feedback cycle of the CQI can be set as a network parameter in predefined steps from 2 ms to infinity (disabled) HARQ ACK/NAK response for every transmitted packet

For internal use 18 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HSDPA Downlink & Uplink Physical Channel Timing


HS-DPCCH is transmitted approximately 7.5 slots after its corresponding
downlink HS-PDSCH sub-frame is received at the UE

The timing of the ACK/NACK response from the UE on the HS-DPCCH is


defined explicitly, so that the NodeB will know when to expect the response for each sub-frame it has transmitted.

For internal use 19 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Link Adaptation Techniques


Two different Link Adaptation techniques are used
Fast Re transmission using Hybrid Automation Repeat Request (HARQ)

Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC)

For internal use 20 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC):


Vary the downlink modulation and coding scheme depending
on the channel conditions for each user

1/3 Turbo Coding is used, different effective code rates are


obtained through various rate matching parameters

Channel conditions reported by CQI in HS-DPCCH by the UE Modulation and coding can be adjusted Every 2 ms

For internal use 21 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Inter-TTI Interval
Transmission Time Interval (TTI) is the time to transmit one data packet
For HSDPA its always 2 ms (=1 sub frame) Inter-TTI interval = number of TTIs (or subframes) between transmissions to the same UE All UEs must be capable of receiving transmissions at least every 3rd sub-frame (Minimum Inter-TTI interval = 3) More capable UE can handle Inter-TTI intervals of 2 or 1

Inter TTI = 2

For internal use 22 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HARQ Processes
If only 1 HARQ process is present, inter-TTI interval is at least 6 because arrival of ACK/NAK takes about 5 subframes

For internal use 23 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HARQ Processes
Multiple parallel HARQ processes per user are possible:
Data rate to user is Increased Available system capacity is not wasted

For internal use 24 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HARQ Processes

Throughput can be increased by reducing the inter-TTI interval (add more HARQ processes) UE w/ minimum inter-TTI = 3 supports 2 HARQ processes UE w/ minimum inter-TTI = 2 supports 3 HARQ processes UE w/ minimum inter-TTI = 1 supports the max. 6 processes Soft memory is partitioned across HARQ processes NodeB chooses no. of processes up to the max the UE can handle

For internal use 25 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

UE Categories

For internal use 26 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Recap...
Shorter Radio Frame(2ms instead of 10ms) allows to adapt quickly to channel conditions
HS-PDSCH (Downlink Data)
Carries HS-DSCH data, SF = 16, 1/3 Turbo Coding, Upto 15 Channelization Codes, TDM and CDM, 16QAM, HARQ: 2Stage Rate Matching using Incremental Redundancy by varying Redundancy and
Constellation Version

HS-SCCH (Downlink Control)

Carries Control Information for HS-PDSCH, SF=128, Channelization Code and Modulation Scheme, Transport Block Size, HARQ process no., RV and
Constellation No., New Data Indicator, UE Identity

HS-DPCCH (Uplink Control)


ACK/NAK, CQI

Downlink and Uplink Physical Channel Timing

2 slots between HS-SCCH and HS-PDSCH Approximately 7.5 slots to receive a HS-DPCCH(ACK/NAK) at NodeB for a particular transmission 3, 2 or 1

Inter-TTI Interval
HARQ Processes
For internal use 27 Nokia Siemens Networks

1 HARQ process: Inter-TTI = 6, so use multiple processes


HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts

Questions???

For internal use 28 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

For internal use 29 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

For internal use 30 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

For internal use 31 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

For internal use 32 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide Convolution Coding


Input

D
Output 0 G0 = 561 (octal) Output 1 G1 = 753 (octal)

(a) Rate 1/2 convolutional coder Input

D
Output 0 G0 = 557 (octal) Output 1 G1 = 663 (octal) Output 2 G2 = 711 (octal)

(b) Rate 1/3 convolutional coder

For internal use 33 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide 1/3 Rate Turbo Coding


xk
1st constituent encoder

zk

xk
Input D D D

Input

Output 2nd constituent encoder

Turbo code internal interleaver


Output

zk

xk

xk

For internal use 34 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide Interleaving


Data of the form aaaabbbbccccddddeeeeffffgggg
will be transmittied as: abcdefgabcdefgabcdefgabcdefg

To protect data transmission against burst errors Transmission without Interleaving:


Error-free message: aaaabbbbccccddddeeeeffffgggg Transmission with a burst error: aaaabbbbcccc____eeeeffffgggg

Transmission with Interleaving:



Error-free transmission: Interleaved: Transmission with a burst error: Deinterleaved with a burst error: aaaabbbbccccddddeeeeffffgggg abcdefgabcdefgabcdefgabcdefg abcdefgabcd____bcdefgabcdefg aa_abbbbccccdddde_eef_ffg_gg

For internal use 35 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide HSDPA Cell Setup

For internal use 36 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide HSDPA Call Setup

For internal use 37 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide HS-SCCH 1st Slot UE id


The HS-SCCH frame and the corresponding HS-PDSCH frame are
overlapping by one timeslot

UE has to first receive and decode the HS-SCCH frame before it knows
whether the corresponding HS-PDSCH is addressed to it

The UE identity can be resolved after reception of the first HS-SCCH


timeslot

The data in the 1st timeslot is masked using a bit string that is derived from
the UE identity

Only the correct UE identity can decode this timeslot

For internal use 38 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide HS-PDSCH Physical Layer HARQ function


Two Stage Rate Matching and Incremental Redundancy
Virtual IR Buffer Second Rate Matching

First Rate Matching

Systematic bits

Nsys

RM_S

Nt,sys

NTTI

bit separation

Parity 1 bits

RM_P1_1

Np1

RM_P1_2

Nt,p1

bit collection

Ndata

Parity2 bits

RM_P2_1

Np2

RM_P2_2

Nt,p2

For internal use 39 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide CQI 20, 5 coding


CQI value 0 Transport Block Size N/A 137 173 233 317 377 461 650 792 931 1262 1483 1742 2279 2583 3319 3565 4189 4664 5287 5887 6554 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM 16-QAM Reference power Number of Modulation adjustment HS-PDSCH Out of range 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 9600 0 NIR XRV

The code words of the (20,5) code are a


linear combination of the 5 basis sequences denoted Mi,n defined in the table below

1 2 3 4 5 6

The CQI values 0 .. 30 are converted


from decimal to binary to map them to the channel quality information bits (1 0 0 0 0) to (1 1 1 1 1) respectively

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

The channel quality information bits are


a0 , a1 , a2 , a3 , a4 (where a0 is LSB and a4 is MSB). The output code word bits bi are given by:
b (a M
i n 0 n 4 i ,n
i 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Mi,0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 Mi,1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Mi,2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Mi,3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 Mi,4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

) mod 2

where i = 0, , 19.

For internal use 40 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007

Backup Slide Other topics


F- DPCH Associated DPCH channels Mapping of RV to Puncturing scheme

For internal use 41 Nokia Siemens Networks

HSDPA Physical Layer Concepts / Bharat B / April 2007