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Semester May 2011 Lecture 1
What is vibration?
Vibration = Any motion that repeats itself after an interval of time is called vibration or oscillation.
For example: 1.The swinging of a pendulum. 2.The motion of a plucked string.
The study of vibration deals with the ◦ study of oscillatory motions of bodies and the forces associated with them.
Basic component of vibration
Vibratory System consists of: 1) spring or elasticity  a means for storing potential energy 2) mass or inertia  a means for storing kinetic energy 3) Damper  a means by which the energy is gradually lost
Involves transfer of potential energy to kinetic energy and kinetic energy to potential energy alternately.
Note: If the systems is damped, some energy is dissipated in each cycle of vibration which eventually all of it will disappear.
Basic concept of vibration
At point 1: KE = 0 PE = mgl(1 – cos θ) At point 2: PE = 0 KE = Max At point 3: KE = 0 PE = PE @ 1
Classification of Vibration
1. Free Vibration:
A system is left to vibrate on its own after an initial disturbance and
no external force acts on the system. E.g. simple pendulum
2. Forced Vibration:
A system that is subjected to a repeating external force. E.g.
oscillation arises from diesel engines
 Resonance occurs when the frequency of the
external force coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system
Classification of Vibration
1. Undamped Vibration: When no energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance during oscillations
2. Damped Vibration: When any energy is lost or dissipated in friction or other resistance
during oscillations
3. Linear Vibration:
When all basic components of a vibratory system, i.e. the spring, the
mass and the damper behave linearly
Classification of Vibration
• Nonlinear Vibration:
If any of the components behave nonlinearly. Most vibration systems behave nonlinearly with increasing amplitude. • Deterministic Vibration: If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force or motion) acting on a vibratory system is known at any given time • Nondeterministic or random Vibration: When the value of the excitation at a given time cannot be predicted. The response is also random and can be described only in terms of statistical quantities.
Vibration Analysis Procedure
Step 1: Mathematical Modeling
Transform the physical system to model using gradual refinement method.
Represent all important vibration components of the system for the purpose of deriving the mathematical
equations governing the behavior of the system.
Vibration Analysis Procedure
Step 2: Derivation of Governing Equations
Using the principles of dynamics and free body diagram, derive the equations that describe the vibration of the system.
Equations are in the form of Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) for the discrete system and Partial Differential Equation (PDE) for a continuous systems. Methods: 1. Newton’s 2nd Law of Motion 2. D’Alembert’s Principle 3. Energy method.
Vibration Analysis Procedure
Step 3: Solution of the Governing Equations • Purpose  To determine the response of the vibrating system in terms of vibration amplitude, frequency, phase angle, speed, acceleration etc. Methods used: Standard methods of solving differential equations. Laplace tranform. Matrices. Numerical method.
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Vibration Analysis Procedure
Step 4: Interpretation of the Results The solution provides the data required for vibration interpretation. If analysis is done during the design stage, the vibration analysis result may cause some design change.
Definition and Terminology
Cycle

The movement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium
position to its extreme position in one direction back to its equilibrium position and then to its extreme position in other direction and back to its equilibrium position.
Amplitude  The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position. The unit is mm.
Period, τ  Time taken to complete one cycle of motion. Unit is sec.
Definition and Terminology
Frequency, f
 The number of cycle per unit time, Hz. It
is also a reciprocal of period.
Phase Angle, φ  Angle between two oscillation, rad.
Natural frequency  Frequency with which the physical system oscillate after initial disturbance without external force applied, ωn and the unit is rad/sec.
Definition and Terminology
Degree of Freedom Minimum number of independent coordinates required to determine the positions of all parts of a system at any instant of time.
Examples of single degreeoffreedom systems: