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Penetration Testing & Vulnerability Analysis

Methodology Top 10 Popular Threats What are Design Flaws? Example Design Flaws Design Analysis & Steps What are Operation Security Concerns? Example Operational Security Concerns Tools

Design Review & Analysis Operational Review & Analysis Vulnerability Verification Reporting & Submission

A1: Injection A2: Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) A3: Broken Authentication and Session Management A4: Insecure Direct Object References A5: Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) A6: Security Misconfiguration A7: Insecure Cryptographic Storage A8: Failure to Restrict URL Access A9: Insufficient Transport Layer Protection A10: Invalidated Redirects and Forwards

A design vulnerability is a problem that arises from a fundamental mistake or oversight in the softwares design The Art of Software Security Assessment Lack of security forethought Intrinsic to the apps architecture Can be subtle Are often devastating

Reliable

Work seamlessly across OSes/versions Do not corrupt memory! Usually have little/no preventative protection mechanisms Rarely alarm detection tools Do not crash on failure

Easily fingerprinted Work well in symphony Difficult to fix, so they hang around for a while

Authentication

Bypasses Lack of Authentication Lack of Authorization Giving higher privileges to lower privileged users Storing key with plaintext Improper use

Authorization

Cryptography

Business Logic

Authentication Bypass

Lack of Authorization

RealVNC NULL Authentication Method, Authentication Bypass in 2006

switch(authentication_type) { case USE_PASSWORD: getCredentials(&creds.password); if (validateCreds(creds)) { auth_flag = 1; } break; case USE_NULL_AUTH: auth_flag = 1; break; }

Debugging / QA hardcoded usernames / passwords

if (!strcmp(password, mySecret)) { auth_flag = 1; break; }

Cryptographic

Hardcoded keys Hardcoded password Password stored in clear-text inside database

Collect Information Modelling The Application Understand Business Logic, Intention & Architecture Security analysis towards the application from gathered information

Application Specs, RFCs, etc Architectural Documentation, URS, SDS, etc Data Flow Diagrams Especially anything on security relevant matters

Identify Resources Resources are anything used by the application which may be useful to an attacker

Data (Credentials? Personal info?) used by the application Control the application has or grants access to

All of resources combined represent every piece of access to data or functionality offered by a system

Example Input

What type of input does the application get? Where/Who does the data come from? What is the purpose of the input? Track the input data flow How trusted is the data? How much validation is performed on the data?

Example Threats

SQL Injection Remote File Inclusion Local File Inclusion Remote Code Execution (Interpreter, OS) Bypass JavaScript Restriction

Something to think about

Any external influence you can provide which affects the program is input!

Examine Output
What type of output data is there? (Is it sensitive?) Where does the output go? How does the input result in output? How can the data be leveraged by an attacker?

Example Threats
Cross Site Scripting (XSS) Application Error Output

SQL, PHP, Database, File Physical Path, etc

Sensitive Information
Email, Phone

What type of External Components are there?

Network Services/Web Services used by the application


SOAP, REST, WCF, JSON, TCP/UDP

Libraries
DXUniversal, Telerik, etc.

Databases
MSSQL, Oracle, NoSQL/MongoDB/etc.

Anything the application relies on that is not part of the application itself

User Roles

What are the various roles of users?


Users Super Users Administrators Backup User

How do they identify themselves? How is a user authenticated?


Form, OpenID, CardSpace

How are privilege levels defined? Where are user roles unclear?

Trust Boundaries

Given the user roles, and the resources, where should trust boundaries lie?
Form URI

Where is trust granted by the application to external components


Physical Drive

Databases

Are these trust boundaries enforced uniformly? Are there unclear areas of trust?

Audit Trails

Are all submissions form logged? Are all transactions logged? Are all logged including timestamp, user access, etc. ? Are all deleted records being deleted from the data store (Database, Local log) ?

Operational vulnerabilities are the result of issues in an application's configuration or deployment environment. The Art of Software Security Assessment

Infrastructure supporting the application Environmental concerns

Operational issues happen outside the scope of the application Not problems which will be indicated in the source itself Possible concerns can be inferred by thinking about what the application does, and how it is likely deployed

Poor configuration? External components


Databases setup with open ports, default passwords Default scripts left around web servers Anonymous logins allowed on ftp servers Unpatched components

Failure to use secure technologies around the applications deployment


Lack of SSL on web servers exchanging credentials Poorly generated certificates/bad random data Compiled application binaries would easily being reverse engineered to let attacker read the application flow

Security Hardening Mechanisms


C/C++ - DEP, Stack Cookies, Hardened Heap, SEH validation, Address Space Layout Randomization IIS.Net Enable Custom Error, URL Rewriting, Application Firewall (ThreatSentry, WebKnight) Obfuscation To protect compilation binary from being reverse engineered

Policy, security in depth


Network segmentation System user roles Chroot/Jails Firewalls

Error Reporting Enable

Data Transaction In Clear-Text

Source Code From Reverse Engineered App

Static Analysis Tools Yasca (.Net, Java, C, C++) FlawFinder (C, C++) HP Fortify (.Net, Java, C, C++, Delphi) RATS (C, C++) Development Environment Tools Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 Coderush FXCop Eclipse

Obfuscation & Reverse Engineering .Net Reflector IDA Pro, OllyDbg Unity3D Obfuscator Dotfuscator Runtime Analyzer CheatEngine Fiddler2 Acunetix, Paros, Burp Suite

Web Vulnerability Scanner Acunetix Web Vulnerability Scanner SkipFish Vega Network Vulnerability Scanner Tenable Nessus Rapid7 Nexpose Exploitation SQLMap Havij Metasploit Framework