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•In Germany, Rudolf Steiner's , 1924, “biodynamic agriculture” •Lord Northbourne 1940:The term “Organic farming” = the farm as Organism. •Sir Albert Howard 1947: Published book “Soil and health” •Japanese farmer, 1940: Natural farming (no tillage system) •1972, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM), was founded in Versailles, France •1980s, various farming and consumer groups worldwide began pressing for government regulation of organic production. This led to legislation and certification standards in the 1990. •1990s, the retail market for organic farming in developed economies has grown about 20 per cent annually
• 1960: The input-intensive cultivation types of the Green Revolution
• Advantages: high-yielding maize, wheat or rice varieties through intensive use of artificial irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides and machinery. • Disadvantages: environmental and social problems.
Organic =plant or animal origin
•The kind of agriculture which is based on organic manures or other natural inputs, i.e. mineral or pesticides of plant origin •Agricultural systems, which follow the principles & logics of living organism in which all elements (soil, plants, farm animals, insects, the farmers) are closely linked each other.
Organic farming is the form of agriculture that relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control to maintain soil productivity and control pests on a farm. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators such as hormones, livestock antibiotics, food additives, and genetically modified organisms. Organic farming usually involves mechanical weed control (via cultivating or hoeing) rather than herbicidal weed control.
Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships and a good quality of life for all involved.
Other name of organic farming
• Farming with Nature (no synthetic chemicals and fertilizers) and also farming in a way that is compatible with or even enhances the biodiversity and self-renewing characteristics of the environment in which we farm). It uses variety of natural crushed rocks, manure and other waste products, and naturally derived materials such as seaweed and seaweed extracts, as well as crop rotation to maintain fertility and plant competition via strategies such as companion planting, intercropping, Cover cropping and local variations of these techniques as the main tools for weed control. • Biological or ecological farming
Why farm organically?
• Has the potential to be self-sustaining • Soil and water, if managed well, can be perpetually self-renewing into the future. • Protected from soil erosion, salinization, water pollution and overexploitation
• Increase biodiversity
• Food are more healthy (free from pesticide residue, antibiotic in meat and genetically modified organism (GMO). • Use energy from renewable resources
Will it work?
• Farming is not easy and organic farming is not easier than other farming. • Many farmers have made organic farming pay and have improved their lifestyle at the same time. • Some have improved their returns from farming.
Is organic food better for you?
• Contain very little residue • Higher vitamin and mineral content • Good for the environment and also good for human • Good taste and freshness
• Is traditional farming organic?
Conventional VS Organic agriculture
• Conventional: Focus on achieving maximum yield through nutrient inputs and control of insects, pests and weeds. • Organic agriculture :Besides production of goods of high quality, it focus also on conservation of the natural resources fertile soil, clean water and rich biodiversity. • Organic agriculture is a modern approach • Organic agriculture is not a step to traditional methods. • Organic agriculture claims to be Sustainable
What traditional and organic farming have in common
Organic methods which can be found in traditional farming
What is specific to organic farming
no use of chemical - closed nutrient cycles, - use microbial for pest fertilizer, fungicides, low external inputs management herbicides, growth promoters etc recycling of biomass -use biological control through mulching or composting
- no use of genetically engineered plants and animals - use of animal manures
- mixed cropping and/or -use high yielding, but crop rotation diseases resistant -sustainable management Introduction of green of resources: soil, manures, cover crops energy, water and nitrogen fixing tree -maintenance of soil -application fertility, prevention of compost soil erosion fertilizer of and good bio
Organic farming is related to the concepts of Sustainable Agriculture, especially with regard to the reduction of external inputs, as an attempt to achieve more environmental justice. Organic farming was developed by farmers in the industrialized countries as an explicit countermovement to input-intensive, high-tech agriculture. Organic farming relies on natural cycles. At the centre of this agricultural system is the maintenance and enhancement of soil fertility and the general rejection of synthetic fertilizer and pesticides.
• Sustainability refers to the successful management of resources of agriculture to satisfy human needs while at the same time maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving natural resources. • Environmentally friendly methods of farming that allow the production of crops or livestock without damage to the farm as an ecosystem, including effects on soil, water supplies, biodiversity, or other surrounding natural resources. • Terms often associated with farms or ranches that are self-sustaining include “low-input,” organic, “ecological,” “biodynamic,” and “permaculture.”
AGRICULTURE SYSTEM IS SUSTAINABLE IF:
• Ecological sustainability:
- Recycling the nutrients instead of applying external inputs.
- No chemical pollution of soil and water
- Promote biological diversity - Improve soil fertility and build up humus - Prevent soil erosion and compaction - Animal friendly husbandry - Using renewable energies
• • -
Social Sustainability: Sufficient production for subsistence and income A safe nutrition of the family with healthy food Good working conditions for both men & women Building on local knowledge and traditions
Economic Sustainability: Satisfactory and reliable yields Low costs on external inputs and investments Crop diversification to improve income safely Value addition through quality improvement and on farm processing - High efficiency to improve competitiveness
Definition of some farming systems
Traditional Agriculture Farming methods before agrochemical, high yielding varieties & machines have been introduced
Sustainable Agriculture A group of agriculture systems Which are not clearly defined, Aiming on sustainable land use e.g. LEISA
Conventional Agriculture “Green revolution” agriculture: monoculture of high yielding varieties, use of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, etc.
Bio-dynamic agriculture Type of Organic Agriculture
Integrated Production Improved conventional agriculture through reduced chemical & pessticides
The Principles of Organic Agriculture
Organic agriculture is based on:
1. 2. 3. 4.
The The The The
principle principle principle principle
of of of of
health ecology fairness care
• Principle of health:
Organic Agriculture should sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant, animal, human and planet
• Principle of ecology
Organic Agriculture should be based on living ecological systems and cycles, work with them, emulate them and help sustain them. • Principle of fairness Organic Agriculture should build on relationships that ensure fairness with regard to the common environment and life opportunities
• Principle of care
Organic Agriculture should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well-being of current and future generations and the environment. Organic Production and Processing is based on a number of principles and ideas. IFOAM is the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. It is an „umbrella‟ organization for the organic industry, made up of nearly 800 organizations from 104 countries.
• To maintain, promote and increase agrobiological diversity through sustainable production systems and protection of their ecological context • To maintain and promote genetic diversity by increasing the number of crop and plant varieties and animal breeds in the farming system; including specific attention to on-farm management of genetic resources • To promote the responsible use and conservation of water and water resources • To use, as far as possible, renewable resources in production and processing systems
The principles of Organic Farming
• To produce sufficient quantities of nutritious wholesome, high quality food • To work compatibly with natural cycles and living systems • To include the wider social and ecological impact within the organic production and processing system • To enhance biological cycles by involving microorganisms, soil flora and fauna, plants and animals within the farming system • To encourage development of an ecologically valuable and sustainable aquatic ecosystem • To maintain and increase long-term fertility and sustainability of soils
• To create a harmonious balance between crop production and animal husbandry • To minimize all forms of pollution • To utilize biodegradable and recycled packaging materials • To allow and provide everyone involved with a quality of life that satisfies their basic needs, and furnishes an adequate return, within a safe, secure and healthy working environment • To support the establishment of an entire production, processing and distribution chain which is both socially just and ecologically responsible • To recognize the importance of, protect and learn from, indigenous knowledge and traditional farming systems.