CROPPING SYSTEM

Cropping

system in organic farming ≠ Conventional system  Multiple cropping (Tumpang Gilir) = plant more than one crop on the same land in one year with the purpose to get more yield from more than one crop and from more than one time. The purpose and benefit of multiple cropping: a. harvest frequency, yield and farmer income can be increased b. Decrease risk of failure c. Decrease unemployment d. Increase soil fertility e. Minimun tillage f. Control soil erosion

TYPES OF MULTIPLE CROPPING

Companion plant (tanaman pendamping)


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Mixed cropping (tanaman campuran)
Intercropping (Tumpang sari)

Crop rotation (rotasi tanaman)
Relay planting (tanaman sela)

The different between organic farming cropping system and conventional cropping system
No Process 1 2 3 4 Seed preparation Soil tillage Nursery Planting Conventional Seed come from genetic engineering -Often used tractor -Maximum tillage Use chemical fertilizer & pesticide Mono culture Organic Seed come from naturally crop growth Manual tillage Without using chemical fertilizer & pesticide Multi culture Crop rotation Companion planting Crop repellent Relay planting Green fertilizer Bio pesticide Use water that free from chemical

5

Irrigation

Use usual irrigation water

No Process

Conventional

Organic

6
7 8

Fertilization
Insect, pest and weed control Harvest and post harvest

Use chemical fertilizer
Use chemical pesticide Contain residual chemical Use chemical post harvest

Use organic fertilizer
Based on natural balance Healthy food Without use of chemical post harvest

MIXED CROPPING

 a.

Combination of two or more crop in one land
Factor affecting mixed cropping: Crop old

b.
c. d.

Crop morphology
Crop tolerant on light and shade Nutrition demand

e.
f.

Root morphology
Companion planting

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Long old crop combined with short old crop

High growth crops combined with short growth crops
Shade tolerant crops combined with high growth crops - bean- celery - bean – lettuce - sun flower-lettuce

Nutrition demand: - heavy feeder: use Nitrogen very high (leafy crops, cabbage, corn, lettuce). - light feeder: carrot, radish - soil builders: bean, peanut, soybean Root morphology: bean-celery, bean-carrot, bean-onion, carrot-lettuce, corn-potato, onion-cabbage

Group of crops based on nutrition demand
HEAVY FEEDERS Asparagus LIGHT FEEDERS Carrot SOIL BUILDERS Alfalfa

Broccoli Cabbage Cauli flower Celery
Corn Lettuce Spinach

Onion Garlic Potato Sweet potato
China cabbage

Bean Peanut Soybean

Kangkung
Cucumber

CROP ROTATION HISTORY:

Has been practiced in Britain, and Europe since many
centuries. Eighteenth century: four course rotation: Roots- barley-Seed-Wheat Nineteenth century: six course rotation: Roots-barley-seeds-potatoes-wheat-oats Now: two years leaf crops and two years of straw crops

DEFINITIONS OF CROP ROTATION

is a traditional method used to cleanse, protect and replenish the soil. It is a cycle of growing different crops in the same area.
Ideally, these different crop are not related botanically Ideally, two successive crops do not make the same demands on the soil for nutrients, nor do they share diseases or insect pests.

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Legumes will be alternated with non legumes
A longer rotation before the same crop is grown again is better than a shorter rotation

Rotations are both spatial (crops move) and temporal (time moves).

BENEFIT OF CROP ROTATION

Pest & disease management – disrupts disease life
cycles and the build-up of insect populations. These generally depend upon a specific host plant family to live on and reproduce ex cabbage maggot, carrot wireworm, brassica club-root, potato root eelworm/nematode

Weed control – different species germinate at different
times of the year, and the variation in crop depth and surface area covered, as well as bed treatments, can prevent weeds from getting a hold.

Soil fertility & nutrient replacement - as the nutrients in

the soil are slowly released, each plant uses them at a different rate, and with more demanding plants or ‘heavy feeders’ (ex corn) in a crop rotation, the soil has time to build up its nutrient store again. This prevents ‘soil exhaustion’, otherwise resulting in ‘crop starvation’, reduced yield and as poor food value.

Pests are most easily kept in balance when the soil grows different crops over a number of years

Plants of lower order of evolution (alfalfa, clover, cabbage) have been shown to be better feeders on less soluble nutrient sources than those of a higher order of development (lettuce or cucumber) Rotations preserve and improve the soil structure Rotation increase in soil nitrogen Rotation increase bacterial activity Rotation increase release of CO2 Rotation control of weeds, insects and disease

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Typical Cycle within a Year
Spring
Leaf eg cabbage

Autumn

Root eg beetroot

Winter

Legume eg lupin

Fruit eg cucumbers

Summer

A Recommended 4-Year Crop Rotation
Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4
Plot A
Root Crops Legumes Leafy Fruit

Plot B

Legumes Leafy Fruit Root Crops

Leafy Veges Fruit Root crops Legumes

Plot C

Fruit Root crops Legumes Leafy

Plot D

A

4 YEARS CROP ROTATION
A B D E

B

C
C F D D

PLOT OF CROP ROTATION

Root Crops (carrot, potato, sweet potato)

Plot A

Legume (bean, soybean, peanut, green bean)

Plot B

Leavy Vegetables (Cabbage, Broccoli, lettuce etc)

Plot C

Fruit (corn, tomato, capsicum)

Plot D

CROP ROTATION BASED ON CROP TAKEN
BEDENGAN
I 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 LEAF FRUIT ROOT LEGUME

MUSIM TANAM
II FRUIT ROOT LEGUME LEAF III ROOT LEGUME LEAF FRUIT IV LEGUME LEAF FRUIT ROOT

dst

TYPE OF MULTIPLE CROPPING

Inter-planting or Intercropping is the practice of planting more than one crop together either in blocks, rows or spaces. It uses all of the available space in the garden at all times. Catch-cropping is a small, quick maturing crop among or alongside main crops which take longer to develop. It is an aspect of inter-planting. Some vegetables most effective for catch-cropping are: lettuce, dwarf bean, cress, mustard, chives, celeriac, radish, turnip, corn salad, early carrots.

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Companion Planting is a particular application of inter-planting. The companion assists the main crop in several ways ex. opening up the soil, supporting growth, improving flavour, protecting it from being attacked by pests because of its fragrance or a substance it exudes. The benefit are: (a) attract or repel insects (b) enhance the growth, health and flavour of neighbouring plants ex. tomatoes, cabbages, beetroot, carrots, parsley. Some plants release oils and minerals into the soil (ex. marigolds, beans, peas, lupins) which enhance the growth of some plants and inhibit others ex. potatoes and tomatoes as neighbour inhibit each others growth, sunflowers inhibit most competitors, but are fine with beans growing up them!

(C). Companion planting often have higher harvests than monocultures because different companion plantings often have fewer pest problems than monocultures because pests have a harder time finding suitable hosts, or because different plantings provide better habitat for natural enemies (d) Companion planting is an important part of pest management. (e) Companion planting helps bring a balanced ecosystem to our landscape, allowing nature to do its' job.

CROP PATTERNS
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Legumes are generally beneficial preceding crops The onions, lettuces and squashes are generally beneficial preceding crops Potato yields best after corn Carrots, beets and cabbages are generally detrimental to subsequent crops

Type of companion Plant

Peas, beans, and legumes trap nitrogen from the air with nodes on their roots. When these crops have finished producing you can dig them into the soil so that the nitrogen is available for the next crop. being leafy vegetables, (cabbages, broccoli,) require a lot of nitrogen to grow, so that's why follow summer pea crops with winter cabbages is a known best practice because it can use this free nitrogen source.

Most Popular Companion Plants Basil: is grow better with Pepper, Tomato, Marigold Bush Beans: with Beets, Cabbage, Carrots, Celery, Corn, Cucumbers, Eggplant, Lettuce, Pea, Radish, Strawberry, . Pole Beans:Carrots, Corn Cucumber, Eggplant, Lettuce, Pea, Radish, Savory, Tansy Beets, Onion BeetsBush Beans, Cabbage, Onion, Sage Cabbage FamilyBush Beans, Beets, Celery, Onions, Tomato, All Strong Herbs, Marigold, Nasturtium Strawberry

Companion Planting Chart for Vegetables
Vegetable Asparagus Beans Broad Beans Beets Broccoli Brussel Sprouts Cabbage Carrot Cauliflower Really likes to be with… Basil, Tomato, Nasturtium, Parsley Carrot, cabbage, cauliflower, cucumber, marigold Brassicas, carrot, celery, corn, lettuce, potato Brassicas, lettuce, onion, sage Celery, chamomile, dill, rosemary Potato, Thyme Beetroot, potato, oregano, sage Bush beans, pole beans, lettuce, onion, pea, radish, tomato Beans, celery, oregano Really dislikes to be with… Onion, garlic, potato Chives, leek, garlic Fennel Bean (pole) Oregano, Strawberry Strawberry Strawberry, tomato Chives, dill, parsnip Nasturtium, peas, potato, strawberry, tomato

Celery
Corn Cucumber Eggplant Leek

Cabbage, leek, onion, spinach, tomato
Bean, cucumber, melon, pea, pumpkin, potato, radish Bean, celery, lettuce, pea, radish Bean, capsicum, potato, spinach Carrot, celery, strawberry

Parsnip, potato
Tomato Cauliflower, potato, basil

Lettuce Melon Onion

Carrots, radishes, strawberry Corn, radish Bean sprout, broccoli, cabbage, lettuce, strawberry tomato Beans, Carrot, corn, cucumber, radish Bean, corn, cabbage, pea, eggplant Corn Celery, cauliflower, eggplant

Beans, beetroot, parsley Potato Bean, pea

Pea Potato Pumpkin Spinach

Onion family Cucumber, pumpkin, squash, sunflower Potato

Tomato Zucchini

Asparagus, celery, carrot, parsley, marigold Nasturtium

Corn, fennel, potato

Good neighbors companion planting
Main Crop Beans Broccoli Cabbage Carrots Celery Corn Cucumber Garlic Leeks Companion crops Fix nitrogen, plant with carrots, celery, corn, peas, potatoes, brassicas, cucumbers Cucumber, garlic, lettuce, onion, potato, tomato Celery, onion, potatoes Lettuce, onions, tomatoes Beans, cabbage family, leek, onion, spinach, tomatoes Beans, cucumber, peanut, peas, potato, pumkin, soybean Peas, carrots Cucumbers, peas, lettuce, celery Carrots, celery, onions

Lettuce
Onions

Broccoli, carrots, cucumbers, onions
Carrots, leeks, brassicas, tomatoes, lettuce

Main Crop
Peas Potato Radish Spinach Soybean Sweet potato

Companion crops
Carrots, celery, corn, cucumber, potato, radish, spinach, tomatoes Cabbage family, carrots, celery, corn, peas Carrot, cucumber, lettuce, melon, peas, spinach Peas, beans, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, onion, peas Corn Potatoes, beans

ORGANIC FARMING COMPONENTS

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Land: free from chemical fertilizer & pesticide pollution - new agriculture land - conversion land from conventional Cultivation: - row planting - crop rotation - alley planting - cover crop - strip cropping Marketing: trust from the consument Miss perception: good performance Certification: International is hard

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