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DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

Instructional Objectives Binary Number System Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal Logic Gates Basic Gates Universal Gates Boolean Algebra

Introduction
Basically two ways of representing the numerical value of quantities: analog and digital. Quantities that are to be measured, monitored, recorded, processed and controlled are analog and digital, depending on the type of system used.

Contd
Systems which are capable of processing a continuous range of values varying with respect to time are called analog systems. Systems which process discrete values are called digital systems. In digital representation the quantities are represented not by proportional quantities but by symbols called digits

Accuracy and precision are greater Easier to design. Digital circuits are less affected by noise, Information storage is easy. Operations can be programmed.

Limitations of Digital Techniques

Most physical quantities in real world are analog in nature, and these quantities are often the inputs and outputs that are being monitored, operated on, and controlled by a system. Thus conversion to digital format and reconversion to analog format is needed.

Numbering System
Many number systems are in use in digital technology. Decimal Binary Octal, and Hexadecimal systems

Decimal System
The decimal system is composed of 10 numerals or symbols. These 10 symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Using these symbols as digits of a number, we can express any quantity. The decimal system is also called the base-10 system because it has 10 digits.

Decimal Examples
3.1410 5210 102410 6400010

Binary System
In the binary system, there are only two symbols or possible digit values, 0 and 1. This base-2 system can be used to represent any quantity that can be represented in decimal or other base system

Conversion
Binary to decimal:

Decimal to Binary:
To manually convert a decimal (base 10) number to a binary (base 2) number, successive division of the decimal number by 2 must be performed.

Conversion

Find the binary value of 600 (Decimal)?

Conversion
600 / 2 = 300 rem. 0 <-- LSB (least significant bit) 300 / 2 = 150 rem. 0\ 150 / 2 = 75 rem. 0\\ 75 / 2 = 37 rem. 1\\\ 37 / 2 = 18 rem. 1\\\\ 18 / 2 = 9 rem. 0\\\\\ 9 / 2 = 4 rem. 1\\\\\\ 4 / 2 = 2 rem. 0\\\\\\\ 2 / 2 = 1 rem. 0\\\\\\\\ 1 / 2 = 0 rem. 1\\\\\\\\\ <-- MSB (most significant bit) \\\\\\\\\\ 1001011000 <----- all of the remainders from the division are then arranged in reverse order, from MSB to LSB to form the correct binary sequence. 1001011000 in binary = 600 in decimal

Octal System
The octal number system has a base of eight, meaning that it has eight possible digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7.

2378 2 8 3 8 7 8 15910
2 1 0

11.18 1 8 1 8 1 8 9.12510
1 0

The hexadecimal system uses base 16. Thus, it has 16 possible digit symbols. It uses the digits 0 through 9 plus the letters A, B, C, D, E, and F as the 16 digit symbols. It is very often quite useful to represent blocks of 4 bits by a single digit.

Conversion

Binary Arithmetic Operation

Four Basic rules for Binary addition
0+0=0 0+1=1 1+0=1 1 + 1 = 10

Four Basic rules for Binary subtraction

0-0=0 1-1=0 1-0=1 10 - 1 = 1

Subtract

Multiply

Division

1.11002 by1002 2.1101102 by1012

2's complement
Computers are ideally suited to perform repetitive, complex calculations, they cannot actually subtract binary numbers. To get around this problem, a complex method involving a numbers 2's complement must be used in sequence of bits, the first bit signifies whether the number is positive (0) or negative (1) If the decimal number '+78' = 0100 1110, (where the first 0 bit shows that the number is positive), that is said to be the number's normal form.

2's complement
To find the number's 1's compliment, bits 2-8 are inverted, giving 0011 0001 To find the number's 2's compliment, 1 is added to this 1's compliment value, here giving 0011 0010. if the number was minus 78, its 2's compliment would be 1011 0010, where the first bit 1 defines the number as being negative.

Binary-Subtractions
to subtract 20 from 45 we would have to think of that equation as being (+45) + (-20). By changing -20 from its natural from to its 2's compliment, we go from 1001 0100 to 1110 1011and then adding 1 we will get 1110 1100, using the process described above. binary equivalent of +45 (0010 1101)

Binary-Subtractions
the binary equivalent of +45 (0010 1101) is added to the 2's compliment of -20, the following result is arrived at: 45 in normal form = 0010 1101 -20 in 2's compliment form = 1110 1100 + ___________ (1)0001 1001 = +25 By discarding the extra new bit at the start of the sequence, 0001 1001, or +25 is correctly found to be the result.

Universal gates

Universal gates

Logic Functions

Logic Functions (contd..)

Boolean Algebra
Boolean algebra can be used to formalize the combinations of binary logic states.

Boolean Algebra

Boolean Algebra

Boolean Algebra
DeMorgan's Theorem

A.B A B
A B A.B

DeMorgan's Theorem
The most important logic theorem for digital electronics, this theorem says that any logical binary expression remains unchanged if we Change all variables to their complements. Change all AND operations to ORs. Change all OR operations to ANDs. Take the complement of the entire expression.

A practical operational way to look at DeMorgan's Theorem is that the inversion bar of an expression may be broken at any point and the operation at that point replaced by its opposite (i.e., AND replaced by OR or vice versa).

DeMorgan Applications
DeMorgan's Theorem is useful in the implementation of the basic gate operations with alternative gates, particularly with NAND and NOR gates which are readily available in IC form.