What are the Functions of the Bone?

Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs

Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain

Movement- bones act as levers for muscles

• • •

Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate Blood cell formation- hematopoietic Storage of fats - it stores energy-rich fat in yellow bone marrow

Spongy Bone Tissue  Located at the ends and interior of long bones  Also called as bone marrow  Composed of an open lattice of bone  Within this lattice framework, RBC are produces

Compact Bone Tissue
 Surrounds

the sponfu bone tissue  Also found at the core of bones  Give strength to withstand mechanical

Exoskeleton or dermal skeleton  Built up outside the body  Muscles are attached to the inner surface  Characteristics into axial and appendicular skeletons

Endoskeleton Built up inside the body surrounded by sot tissue  Muscles are attached to the outer surface  Characteristics of vertebrae  Divided into axial and appendicular
 





the main axis of the body notochord, vertebral column, ribs,hyoid sternum and skull of the



 

Frontal bone- forms the forehead and the anterior part of the brain case Occipital Bone- curves to form the base of the brain Temporal Bone- that leads to middle ear Sphenoid Bonecontributes to forming the orbits Ethmoid Bone- smallest

Posterior View

Nasal bone – form the bridge of the nose  Zygomatic bone – form the cheekbones  Lacrimal Bone – located at the corners of the eyes near the nose  Maxillae – form the upper jaw to which facial bones are joined  Mandible - forms the lower jaw the only movable portion of the skull.

anchors the tongue and serves as the site for the attachment of muscles associated with swallowing.

Frontal Sinus

Ethmoid Sinus Sphenoid Sinus Maxillary Sinus

• • •

Warm and moisten air Lighten the skull Enhance voice resonance

 The

main axial support vertebrae  Common called back bone  Protect the spinal cord  Provides rigidity to the body

Cervical vertebrae - Smallest of all separate vertebrae - Atlas- firs t cervical - Axis – second cervical  Thoracic vertebrae - Have an extra articular facet for

Lumbar Vertebrae - The largest and strongest of all vertebrae  Sacrum - Forms the pelvic curvature  Coccyx - Formed by the fusion of 4 vertebrae

The Vertebral Column Cervical Vertebrae (7) Thoracic Vertebrae (12) Lumbar Vertberae (5) Sacrum Coccyx

Cervical Vertebrae

Sacrum & Coccyx


of cartilaginous or elongated bony structures attached to the vertebrae Form the thoracic cage Composed of the neck, shaft and the angle

 True

Ribs (7 pairs) - Directly connected to the sternum  False Ribs ( (3 pairs) - The distal cartilaginous ends unite with the costal cartilages of the last true ribs  Floating Ribs (2 pairs)

The Thoracic Cage

Sternum True Ribs (7) False Ribs (3) Floating Ribs (2)

 Commonly

called as the breast bone  Elongated structure lying in the midventral region of the anterior trunk  Articulates with the pectoral girdle

 Consists

of the anterior pectoral appendages and girdle and the posterior pelvic appendages and girdle.

Pectoral girdle - Scapula – shoulder blade - coracoid - Clavicle – collar bone  Forelimbs - humerus- upper arm - Radius and ulnaforearm - Carpals-wrist

Pelvic girdle - Illium - Ischium - pubis  Hindlimbs - Femur – thigh - Tibia and fibula – shank - Patella- knee cap - Tarsals- ankle - Metatarsals –sole

Bones of the Pectoral Girdle


Ulna Radius 8 Carpals 5 Metacarpals 14 Phalanges

The Lower Limb (Legs)

Femur Patella Tibia Fibula 7 Tarsals 5 Metatarsals 14 Phalanges

phelangies metatarsals tarsals tarsals metatarsals phelangies


Pelvis (lateral view)

Acetabulum Obturator foramen Ischium Pubis Ischium

Long Bone- column shaped bones consists of a shaft and heads at both ends Short bones –normally cube shape, contain mostly spongy bone Flat bone- thin, flattened, with usually curved broad surfaces Irregular bone- which have varied shapes that permit connections with other bones Round Bone- exemplified

spongy bone Proximal epiphysis compact bone Endosteum


epiphyseal line yellow marrow

Sharpey’s fibers Distal epiphysis hyaline cartilage periosteum

 Epiphyses

– ends of long bones  Metaphysis – joints epiphysis and diaphysis  Articular Cartilagewhere bone forms a joint with another bone  Periosteumcovering of the

 Medullary

or marrow cavity space inside diaphysis; contain yellow bone marrow  Endosteum – inner covering/ lining of the bone  Nutrient foramen – entrance of

Connective tissue structures that attach the muscles to the bones  The tendon of the quadriceps muscle traveling over the knee joint is what is tapped to elicit


bands of connective tissue connecting bones together.


to places where bones meet allowing a wide range of movements. Also called articulations Muscles and bone work

Synarthrosis: immovabl

e Amphiarthrosis: slightly movable Diarthrosis: freely movable/ Synovial joints

Gomphoses: joins teeth to mandible and maxilla.

Sutures: joins bones in skull to each other. Irregular edges of the sutures provide increased strength and decreased number of fractures at the suture point.  Synchondrosis: is a cartilaginous. Joint; it is also temporary joint that is replaced by bone during adult life

suture pubis symphisis

Symphysis: have a pad of fibrocartilage between articulating bones. Includes the pubic symphyses and the intervertebral joints.

Syndesmoses: joins articulating bones by long strands of dense, regular connective tissue. (radius/ulna and tibia/fibula)

Ball-and-Socket Joints. (Spheroid) These joints are formed where the rounded head of one bone fits into the hollow, cup-shaped socket of another bone such as the shoulder joint and thehip joint. Such joints allow freedom of movement in all directions. Hinge Joints (Ginglymus) These joints occur where the convex surface of one bone fits into the concave surface of another bone, so making movement possible in one plane only. Examples of these joints are the knee and the elbow joints. Hinge joints have ligaments mainly at the sides of the joints. Gliding Joints This type of joint allows for gliding movements between flat surfaces as the surfaces slide over one another. Only a limited amount of movement is allowed such as the joints between the carpal bones, the joints between the tarsal bones and those between the articular processes (zygapophyses) of successive vertebrae. Pivot Joints (Trochoid) the end of one one bone rotates round the axis of another bone such as the end of the radius rotating around the ulna as the palm of the hand is turned inwards or outwards.

(diarthrosis)- freely moveable

ligaments femur

joint capsule


hyaline cartilage femur

synovial cavity

Fibrous: (a), syndesmosis (tibiofibular), (b) suture, skull Cartilaginous: (c) symphysis (vertebral bodies), (d) synchondrosis (first rib and sternum) Synovial: (e) condyloid (wrist), (f) planar (intercarpals), (g) hinge or ginglymus (elbow), (h) ball and socket (hip), (i) saddle(carpometacarpal of thumb), (j) pivot (atlantoaxial)

Synovial Joint Movement

Types of movement and examples (with muscles) flexion- move lower leg toward upper extension- straightening the leg abduction- moving leg away from body adduction- movong leg toward the body rotation- around its axis supination- rotation of arm to palm-up position pronation- palm down circumduction- swinging arms in circles inversion- turning foot so sole is inward eversion- sole is out

Synovial Joint Movement



Adduction Abduction

Male Pelvic Girdle

Female Pelvic Girdle

Fetus: 1st 2 months

Endochondral Ossification

2o ossification center


bone calcified cartilage
Just before birth

epiphyseal plate
Childhood Adult

epiphyseal line


Builds new bone


Mature bone cell


Eats bone

Osteoblasts are responsible for building new bone
and lie at the centre of bone physiology. Their functions include the synthesis of collagen and the control of mineralization.

Osteocytes Bone adapts to applied forces by
growing stronger in order to withstand them; it is known that exercise can help to improve bone strength.

Osteoclasts are specialised cells that resorp and
remodel the bone. They work by sealing off an area of bone surface then, when activated, they pump out hydrogen ions to produce a very acid environment, which dissolves the hydroxyapatite.


A broken bone is known as a fracture. This can simply be a crack or buckle in the structure of the bone, or a complete break,



bony callus

bone remodeling

Bone Fracture Repair

The repair of bone fractures is similar to embryonic bone formation.

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Arthritis- inflammation of the joints Consists of more than 100

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different conditions The common denominator for all these conditions is joint pain Osteoarthritis- nick-named “wear and tear” arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most crippling forms of arthritis. It is characterized by chronic inflammation of the lining of joints.

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Osteoporosis- literally means "porous bones“ Occurs when a body's blood calcium level is low and calcium from bones is dissolved into the blood to maintain a proper balance. Over time, bone mass and bone strength decrease. As a result, bones become dotted with pits and pores, weak and fragile, and break easily. Other factors besides age can lead to osteoporosis, such as a diet low in calcium and protein, a lack of vitamin D, smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and insufficient weight-bearing exercises to stress the bones.





 Childhood

disorder involving softening and weakening of the bones.  It is primarily caused by lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate

Condition involving complex lateral and rotational curvature and deformity of the spine.  Typically classified as:  Idiopathic (unknown cause)  Congenital (caused by vertebral abnormality present at birth) possibly inherited  Secondary symptom of another condition, such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy

Kyphosis can be thought of as an arching of the spine in which the top of the arch is seen in the back  This condition is sometimes referred to as “humpback” or “hunchback”  Caused by inflammation of vertebrae, poor posture, or congenital

Lordosis is the increase of the spinal posterior concavity.  In most cases the cause is unknown and the disorder appears from  This the condition onset of skeletal growth. is also referred to as “swayback”.

 

Infection of bone or bone marrow, usually caused by bacteria. The infective process encompasses all of the bone components, including the bone marrow Pus is produced within the bone, which may result in an abscess which then deprives the bone of its blood supply.

Because of the particulars of their blood supply, the tibia, femur, humerus, and vertebral bodies are especially prone

 

The most common type of malignant bone cancer, accounting for 35% of primary bone malignancies. Usually occurs in the area where the body of cartilage (that separates the epiphyses and the diaphysis) of tubular long bones is located. 50% of cases occur around the knee.




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