FLUID MECHANICS & HYDRAULIC

MACHINES
Lecture 1: Properties of Fluids
Er. Deepak Kumar Mallick,
School of Civil Engineering.
What is a Fluid?
A fluid is a substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a
shear stress, no matter how small that shear stress may be.
”or”
If a fluid is at rest, there can be no shearing forces acting and, therefore,
all forces in the fluid must be perpendicular to the planes upon which they
act.

• A solid can resist a shear stress by a static deformation, a fluid cannot.

• Liquid & Gases.
• Water, Milk, Petrol, Air, etc.

Fluid Properties
• Density (ρ) = M/V = Mass per unit volume. (Kg/m
3
).

• Specific Weight (γ ) = ρg = Weight of fluid per unit volume (N/m
3
).

• Specific Volume (ν) = = Volume occupied by mass of fluid (m
3
/kg).

• Specific Gravity (s) = = Ratio of the specific weight of the fluid to

the specific weight of pure water at 4
0
C.

• Viscosity (µ) = Property of a fluid which determines its resistance to
shearing stresses.

• Kinematic Viscosity = = Ratio between dynamic viscosity and density of
fluid.
1
µ
0
f
w,4 C
µ
µ
| | µ
|
µ
\ .
Shear Stress
Newton’s Law
• Newton’s law of viscosity:
The shear stress (τ) on a fluid is directly proportional to the rate of shear
strain. The constant s called the co-efficient of viscosity.

• The fluids follow this law is called as Newtonian Fluid.

du
dy
t = µ
Types of Fluids
• Ideal Fluids : τ = 0

• Newtonian Fluids :

• Ideal Plastics :

• Non-Newtonian Fluids :

du
dy
t = µ
du
Constant
dy
t = +µ
n
du
dy
| |
t =µ
|
\ .
Newtonian Fluids vs Non-Newtonian Fluids

Effect of Temperature
For Liquids:

• The Viscosity of liquids decreases with increase in temperature.
• Shear stress is due to the inter-molecular cohesion which decreases
with increase in temperature.

For Gases:

• The Viscosity of gases increases with increase in temperature.
• Shear stress is due to the exchange of momentum of the molecules.
The inter-molecular cohesion is negligible in gases.

e
/ T
T
µ = A
|
2
b
a
1
T
1
T
T
µ =
+
Compressibility & Bulk Modulus
• Compressibility: Change in volume under the action of
external force.
Compressibility = 1/K,

• Bulk modulus (K) : The substance's resistance to uniform
compression. It is defined as the ratio of
the infinitesimal pressure increase to the
resulting relative decrease of the volume.

• K increases with increase in pressure.
• For liquid K decreases with increase in temperature and for
gases K increases with increase in temperature.
• At NTP, K
air
= 101.3 KN/m
2
and K
water
= 2.07x106 KN/m
2

dP
K
dV / V
=
÷
Surface Tension
• Cohesion: The force of attraction between the molecules of a liquid
by virtue of which they are bound to each other to remain as one
assemblage of particles is known as the force of cohesion. This
property enables the liquid to resist tensile stress.

• Adhesion: This force enables two different liquids to adhere to each
other or a liquid to adhere to a solid body or surface.

• Surface Tension: Surface tension is a property of the surface of
a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. This property is
caused by cohesion of similar molecules.

Water Droplets, Soap Bubble, Liquid Jet
• Water Droplets:

• Soap Bubbles:

• Liquid:
4
P
d
=
o
P
d
8
=
o
P
d
2
=
o
Capillary
Capillarity: This is the ability of a liquid to flow in narrow
spaces without the assistance of, and in opposition to external
forces like gravity.

For water & Glass tube
4 cos
h
gd
=
o u
µ
4
h
gd
=
o
µ
Vapor Pressure & Cavitation
• Liquids evaporate because of molecules escaping from the liquid
surface. The vapor molecules exert a partial pressure in the space,
known as vapor pressure.
• The vapor pressure increases with increase in temperature.
• When the pressure above a liquid equals the vapor pressure of the
liquid, boiling occurs.

• In many situations involving the flow of liquids it is possible that
very low pressure are produced as certain locations in the system.
Under such circumstances the pressures may be equal to or less
than the vapor pressure. When this occurs, the liquid flashes into
vapor. This phenomenon is called cavitation.
• The growth and decay of vapor bubbles affects the operating
performance of hydraulic pumps and turbines and can result in
erosion of the metal parts in the region of cavitation.
Pressure Scale
• In fluid mechanics the pressure results from a normal
compressive force acting on an area. The pressure p is defined
as force per unit area.
• The standard atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101.3 kPa.
• The gauge pressure is the pressure recorded by the gauge or
manometer.
• Absolute pressure = gauge pressure + atmospheric pressure
P
a
= P
g
+ P
atm
• Zero gauge pressure is atmospheric pressure. Also, zero
absolute pressure in ideal vacuum.
Pressure Scale

Problems