Second Edition

Chapter 1
Introducing Health Psychology
Slides prepared by Richard O. Straub, University of Michigan, Dearborn

Health and Illness

What Is Health?
 A state
  

of complete physical, mental, and social well-being
Physical health Psychological health Social health

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

Ancient Views
 Prehistoric
  


Illness caused by evil spirits Trephination Demons and punishment by the gods cause illness

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

Hippocrates (c. 460 – c. 377 B.C.)
 Rejected

ancient focus on mysticism & superstition  “Father” of western medicine  Humoral theory

Wellness: equilibrium among four bodily fluids

Claudius Galen (A.D. c. 129 – c. 200)
 Developed widely used system

of pharmacology

Roots of Non-Western Medicine

Traditional Oriental Medicine
 Founded on principle

of internal harmony  Qi — vital energy or life force  Acupuncture, herbal therapy, meditation

Ayurveda (longevity-knowledge)
 Oldest known medical system  Health

is a balance of bodily humors (doshas)

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

The Middle Ages and the Renaissance
 Epidemic

— disease that spreads rapidly within a community  Plague — bacterial disease carried by rodents that occurred during the Middle Ages

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

The Renaissance
 Reemergence

of scientific inquiry and medical study  Mind–body dualism — philosophical viewpoint that mind and body are separate entities that do not interact

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

Post-Renaissance Rationality
 Focus shifts from mysticism

to the biological

causes of disease  Anatomical theory of disease — theory that the origins of diseases lie in the internal organs, musculature, and skeletal system of the body

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

Discoveries of the Nineteenth Century
 Cellular

theory — theory that disease results from abnormalities in body cells  Germ theory — theory that disease is caused by microorganisms

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

The Twentieth Century and the Dawn of a New Era

Biomedical model — the idea that illness always has a physical cause
 

 

Dominant view of twentieth-century medicine Embraces reductionism (complex phenomena derive ultimately from a single primary factor) Based on the Cartesian doctrine of mind–body dualism Health viewed as simply the absence of disease

Pathogen — a virus, bacterium, or some other microorganism that causes a particular disease

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

The Twentieth Century and the Dawn of a New Era

Psychosomatic Medicine — outdated branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of physical diseases caused by faulty mental processes Started trend toward modern view of illness and health as multifactorial Interaction of host factors, environmental factors, behavioral factors, psychological factors

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

The Twentieth Century and the Dawn of a New Era
 Behavioral medicine

— interdisciplinary field

that integrates behavioral and biomedical science in promoting health and treating disease  Biofeedback

Health and Illness: Lessons from the Past

The Emergence of Health Psychology
 1978: APA establishes the

division of health psychology (Division 38) and lays down four goals for the new field
   

To scientifically investigate the psychological, behavioral, and social etiology of disease To promote health To prevent and treat illness To promote public health policy and the improvement of the health care system

The Biopsychosocial Model

Biopsychosocial Perspective

The Biological Context
 Every thought,

mood, and urge is a biological

event  Evolutionary Perspective

Adaptation and reproductive success

 Life-Course


Age-related aspects of health and illness

Biopsychosocial Perspective

The Psychological Context
 Coping with

stressful experiences  Attitude and treatment effectiveness  Psychological interventions

Biopsychosocial Perspective

The Social Context

The ways we think about, influence, and relate to one another and the environment Birth cohort — group of people who, because they were born at about the same time, experience similar historical and social conditions

Biopsychosocial Perspective

Sociocultural Perspective
 

Theoretical perspective that focuses on how social and cultural factors contribute to health and disease Culture — the enduring behaviors, values, and customs that a group of people transmit from one generation to the next Ethnic group — large group of people who tend to have similar values and experiences because they share certain characteristics Socioeconomic status (SES) — a measure of several variables, including income, education, and occupation

Biopsychosocial Perspective

Gender Perspective

Theoretical perspective that focuses on genderspecific health problems and barriers to health care Under-representation of women as participants in medical research trials

Biopsychosocial “Systems”

FAQs About Health Psychology

What Do Health Psychologists Do?
 Teachers,

research scientists, clinicians  Positive psychology: new focus on optimal, healthy human functioning  Applied health psychologists: licensed practitioners who focus on health-promoting interventions

Where Do Health Psychologists Work?

FAQs About Health Psychology

How Do I Become a Health Psychologist?
 General

psychology training at the undergraduate level  Special training at the doctoral (Ph.D.) level
 

Four- to six-year program 65 Ph.D. programs in health psychology in the United States Curriculum follows the biopsychosocial model