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# ELECTRICITY

EE159
H. Chan; Mohawk College 2
Main Topics
Current, Voltage, and Charge
Resistance
Ohms Law, Power, and Energy
Resistive Circuits
Circuit Analysis and Theorems
Capacitance and Capacitive Transients
H. Chan; Mohawk College 3
Evaluation
4 Quizzes (5% each)
Week #2, #6, #10, and #12
2 Tests (15% each)
Test #1 - Week #4; Test #2 - Week #8
Final Exam (30%)
Week #14
TLM Assignments (20%)
H. Chan; Mohawk College 4
Some SI Base Units
QUANTITY SYMBOL
Length l
Current I, i
Temperature T
Mass m
Time t
UNIT ABBREV.
meter m
ampere A
kelvin K
kilogram kg
second s
H. Chan; Mohawk College 5
Some SI Derived Units
Voltage V, v, E, e
Charge Q, q
Resistance R
Power P, p
Capacitance C
Inductance L
Frequency f
Magnetic Flux F
Mag. Flux Density B
volt V
coulomb C
ohm W
watt W
farad F
henry H
hertz Hz
weber Wb
tesla T
H. Chan; Mohawk College 6
Unit Conversions
UNIT MULTIPLY BY TO GET
in 0.0254 m
ft 0.3048 m
mi 1.609 km
lb 4.448 N
hp 746 W
kWh 3.6 x 10
6
J
ft-lb 1.356 J
H. Chan; Mohawk College 7
Power of 10, Scientific, &
Engineering Notations
To handle a range of electrical values that vary
tremendously, we need the power of 10 notation;
e.g. 83.5 x 10
5
Hz.
If power of 10 numbers are written with one
significant digit to the left of the decimal place,
they are said to be in scientific notation;
e.g. 8.35 x 10
6
Hz.
Prefixes are used for engineering notation;
e.g. 8.35 MHz.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 8
Prefixes For Engineering Notation
POWER OF 10 PREFIX SYMBOL
10
12
tera T
10
9
giga G
10
6
mega M
10
3
kilo k
10
-3
milli m
10
-6
micro m
10
-9
nano n
10
-12
pico p

Atomic Theory
K L M N
N
ucleus
Simplified representation of the atom
Nucleus normally consists of neutrons and protons (positively charged)
Electrons orbit the nucleus in discrete orbits called shells (K, L, M, N, etc.)
Atom is electrically neutral since No. of protons = No. of electrons
The outer most shell is called the valence shell and electrons in this shell
are called valence electrons
H. Chan; Mohawk College 10
Conductors, Insulators, and
Semiconductors
Conductors are materials (e.g. copper,
aluminum, gold) that have large numbers of
free electrons.
Insulators do not conduct (e.g. plastic,
rubber, porcelain) because they have full or
nearly full valence shells.
Semiconductors have half-filled valence
shells (e.g. silicon, germanium).
H. Chan; Mohawk College 11
Electric Charge
A body is said to be charged when it has an
excess or deficiency of electrons.
The unit of electrical charge is the coulomb;
1 C = 6.24 x 10
18
electrons.
Coulombs Law: F = kQ
1
Q
2
/ r
2

where k = 9 x 10
9
, Q
1
and Q
2
are charges in
coulombs, and r in m.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 12
Voltage
7 When charges are transferred from one body to
another, a potential difference or voltage results
between them.
7 The voltage between two points is 1 V if it
requires 1 J of energy to move 1 C of charge from
one point to the other; i.e. V = W / Q.
7 Symbol for DC voltage sources:

+ -
+ -
Cell
Battery
H. Chan; Mohawk College 13
Current
Electrons flow from negative terminal to positive
terminal but conventional current flows in the
opposite direction.
1 A is 1 C of charge passing a given point in 1 s,
i.e. I = Q / t or Q = I x t.
E
+
- I
Lamp
Direction of conventional current
H. Chan; Mohawk College 14
Practical dc Voltage Sources
+Primary batteries are not rechargeable;
Secondary batteries are rechargeable.
+Batteries come in different shapes (e.g
button), sizes (e.g. AAA, AA, C, D), types (
e.g. alkaline, carbon-zinc, lithium, NiCad,
lead acid) and ratings.
+Battery capacity (Ah) =
current drain x expected life.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 15
Other dc Voltage Sources
Electronic power supplies rectify ac to dc
for use in equipment or labs.
Solar/photovoltaic cells convert sunlight to
electrical energy for remote areas or space
applications.
DC generators convert mechanical energy
to electrical energy by rotating a coil of
wire through a magnetic field.
Measuring V and I
Place a voltmeter across or in parallel with the component
where the voltage is to be measured
.
To measure current through a component the ammeter must
be placed in series with the component
.
E
+
_
R
1

R
2
E
+
_
R
2

V
R
1
A _
_
+
+
a) Measuring voltage
b) Measuring current
H. Chan; Mohawk College 17
Switches, Fuses, & Breakers
Lamp
E
(a) SPST
+
-
Lamp
E
(b) SPDT
S1 S2
+
-
(c) DPST (d) DPDT (e) NO Pushbutton (f) NC Pushbutton
(g) Fuse (h) Circuit Breaker
H. Chan; Mohawk College 18
Resistance
Resistance is defined as the opposition to charge
movement and mathematically, is given by:
R = rl / A
where r is the resistivity (W-m), l is the length (m), and A
is the cross-sectional area (m
2
) of the conductor.
Note that r is temperature dependent. The rate at which
the resistance changes with temperature is called the
temperature coefficient (a). To determine the resistance
when T
1
changes to T
2
, use:
R
2
= R
1
[1 + a
1
( T
2
- T
1
)]

H. Chan; Mohawk College 19
Types of Resistors
Fixed Resistors: e.g. molded carbon composition,
carbon film, metal film, metal oxide, wire-wound,
& IC resistor network
Variable resistors: potentiometer & rheostat
Fixed
Resistor
Potentiometer Rheostat
H. Chan; Mohawk College 20
Resistor Colour Code
Colour: Bk, Br, R, O, Y, Gn, Bl, V, Gr, W, Gl , S , No Colour
Band 1: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Band 2: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Band 3: 1 10 10
2
10
3
10
4
10
5
10
6
10
7
.1 .01
Band 4: 5% 10% 20%
Band
1 2 3 4 5
3
33
1
33
5
55 33 5
4
2
,
Significant Figures
Multiplier
Tolerance
Reliability
H. Chan; Mohawk College 21
Ohms Law
Ohms Law states that current (I) in a resistive circuit is
directly proportional to its applied voltage (E or V) and
inversely proportional to its resistance (R).
In equation form:

R
V
I
A
E
+
R
V
+
+
I
I (mA)
V
2 4
3
6
H. Chan; Mohawk College 22
Power
t
W
P
Power is defined as the rate of doing work or,
equivalently, as the rate of transfer of energy.
(watts, W)
where W is the work (or energy) in joules
and t is in seconds.
In terms of electrical quantities:
R
V
R I VI P
2
2

H. Chan; Mohawk College 23
Energy & Efficiency
Energy is given by: W = P x t [in J]
The unit used by utility companies is the
kWh = 3.6 MJ or 1000 Wh.
The efficiency of a device or system is defined as
the ratio of useful power output to total power
input, i.e., h

= (P
out
/ P
in
) x100 %.
The overall efficiency is the product of the
efficiencies of each individual part.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 24
Series Circuits
Two elements are said to
be in series if they are
connected at a single point
and if there are no other
current-carrying
connections at this point.
The current (I) is the same
everywhere in a series
circuit.
+
R
1
R
2

R
1

R
2

R
3

E
Single point of
connection
I
H. Chan; Mohawk College 25
Series Circuits & KVL
E
R
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
R
R
+
-
V
V
1
2
3
2
3
1
E
1
2
+
-
I
Kirchhoffs Voltage Law states that for a closed loop:
Sum of V
rises
= Sum of V
drops

The total resistance of n resistors in series is:
R
T
= R
1
+ R
2
+ . . . + R
n
The total power is: P
T
= P
1
+ P
2
+ . . . + P
n
H. Chan; Mohawk College 26
Voltage Divider Rule
The voltage applied to a series circuit will be
dropped across all the resistors in proportion to the
magnitude of the individual resistors.
V
x
= (R
x
/ R
T
) E
E
R
+
-
+
-
+
-
V
R
R
+
-
V
V
1
2
3
2
3
1
I
H. Chan; Mohawk College 27
Series Circuits (contd)
An open circuit would cause the voltage drop
across each resistor in a series circuit to be zero
since I = 0.
A shorted resistor will result in the voltage drop
across the other normal resistors to be higher than
expected.
The circuit effect of a resistor which is < 100
times the value of any other series resistor may
effectively be neglected.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 28
Circuit Ground
Ground is an arbitrary electrical point of
reference or common point in a circuit.
The circuit ground is referred to as a chassis
ground when it is connected to the metal
chassis of an appliance.
For safety purpose, the chassis ground is
usually connected to the earth ground via
the electrical outlet box.
Ground Symbols
2
+
-
E
R
E
R
+
-
R
R
1
2
1
(a) Circuit ground
(b) Chassis ground
a b
c
d e
Ground symbols
Equivalent Circuits
f
H. Chan; Mohawk College 30

Internal Resistance of Voltage Sources
E R
+
L
R
int
ideal
-
Terminal
Voltage
Actual voltage source
H. Chan; Mohawk College 31
Parallel Circuit
Elements/branches are said to be parallel when they have
only 2 nodes in common. The voltage across all parallel
elements in a circuit will be the same.
Voltage sources of different potentials should never be
connected in parallel.

I
T

E
+
I
1
I
2

R
1
R
2

I
3

R
3

R
T

I
x
= E / R
x
; KCL: I
T
= I
1
+ I
2
+ I
3
= E / R
T

H. Chan; Mohawk College 32
Parallel Circuits & KCL
Kirchhoffs Current Law: I = 0, or I
in
= I
out
Overall conductance: G
T
=G
1
+ G
2
+ . . + G
n
=1/R
T

i.e. Total resistance, R
T
= 1/(1/R
1
+ 1/R
2
+ . . . + 1/R
n
)
For 2 resistors in parallel: R
T
= R
1
R
2
/ (R
1
+ R
2
)
For n equal resistors in parallel: R
T
= R/n where R is the
resistance of each resistor.
Current divider rule: I
x
= (R
T
/R
x
)I
T

Total power dissipated:

P
T
= P
1
+ P
2
+ . . . + P
n

where P
1
= E
2
/R
1
or EI
1
; . . . . ; P
n
= E
2
/R
n
or EI
n

H. Chan; Mohawk College 33
Series - Parallel Networks
R
T1

R
1

R
2
R
3

R
T2

R
2

R
3

R
1

R
4

R
T3

R
1

R
2

R
3
R
4

R
5
R
6

R
7

(a)
(b)
(c)
H. Chan; Mohawk College 34
Constant-Current Source and Source
Conversion
A constant-current source
maintains the same current in its
branch regardless of the
external load.
An ideal current source has an
infinite shunt resistance.
When several current sources
are placed in parallel, they can
be replaced by a single source.
Current sources should never be
placed in series.
Ideal constant-current source
Source conversion
I
E
R
S

I
R
S

E = IR
S

I = E/R
S

H. Chan; Mohawk College 35
Mesh (Loop) Analysis
Arbitrarily assign a CW current to each closed loop.
g Indicate the polarities across all resistors.
@ Apply KVL for each loop.
j Solve the resultant simultaneous linear equation.
) Combine loop currents to get branch current.
+
-
E
R
R
1
2
3
R
I
I
I
3
2
1 1
+
-
E
2
+
-
+
-
-
+
+
-
+
- +
R
4
-
Superposition Theorem
The total current through or voltage across a resistor or
branch may be determined by summing the effects due to
each independent source.
Replace all voltage sources with a short circuit and all
current sources with an open circuit, except for the one
source to be examined.
I
R
1

R
2

E
I
R
1

R
1
R
2
R
2

E
+
Thevenins Theorem
E
R
R
1
2
3
R
1
E
2
R
L
R
E
L
R
Th
Th
- Any linear bilateral network may be simplified to a two-terminal
circuit consisting of a single voltage source, E
Th
, in series with a single
resistor, R
Th
.
- E
Th
is the equivalent open-circuit voltage across terminals a and b, and
R
Th
is the equivalent resistance seen between the same terminals.
a
b
a
b
H. Chan; Mohawk College 38
Thevenins Theorem (contd)
Procedure for converting any circuit to its
Thevenin equivalent:
Remove the load from the circuit.
Set all sources in the circuit to zero.
R
Th
is obtained by calculating the resistance across
the open-terminals ab.
Replace the sources removed in step #2 and obtain
E
Th
by calculating

the open-circuit voltage across
terminals ab.
Nortons Theorem
Any linear bilateral network may be simplified to a two-
terminal circuit consisting of a single current source, I
N
,
and a single shunt resistor, R
N
.
I
N
is the equivalent short-circuit current between terminals
a and b, and R
N
is the equivalent resistance seen between
the same terminals.
R
R
1
2
3
R
1
E
2
R
L
R
E
L
R
I
N
N
a
b b
a
H. Chan; Mohawk College 40
Nortons Theorem (contd)
Procedure for converting any circuit to its
Norton equivalent:
Remove the load from the circuit.
Set all sources in the circuit to zero.
R
N
is obtained by calculating the resistance across
the open-terminals ab.
Replace the sources removed in step #2 and obtain
I
N
by calculating

the short-circuit current between
terminals ab.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 41
Maximum Power Transfer Theorem
E
R
L
R
Th
Th
A load resistance will receive maximum power from a circuit when the
resistance of the load is exactly the same as the Thevenin (or Norton)
resistance looking back at the circuit.
The maximum power delivered to the load is:
R
L
R
I
N
N
b
a
a
b
4
;
4
2 2
max
N N
Th
Th
R I
or
R
E
P
H. Chan; Mohawk College 42
Notes on Power Transfer
In amplifiers and in most communication circuits,
it is often desirable that the load receives the
maximum amount of power from a source.
However, under the condition of maximum power
transfer ( i.e. R
L
= R
source
), the efficiency is only
50 %.
For power transmission or power supply
applications, R
source
<< R
L
so that efficiency
is close to 100 %.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 43
Capacitance
A capacitor consists of two metal plates separated by an insulator
(dielectric) which may be air, oil, mica, plastic, ceramic, etc.
When a dc source is applied across the capacitor, one of the plates
becomes positive and the other negative.
The amount of charge stored by a capacitor is: Q = CV (C)
Metal
Plates
Lead
Dielectric
Lead
Parallel-plate capacitor
E C
Circuit symbol
E
C

Electric field
of capacitor
H. Chan; Mohawk College 44
Capacitance (contd)
Capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is:
C = e A / d (F), where e is the permittivity of the
dielectric, A is the area of each plate and d is the
separation of the plates.
Further, e e
r
e
o
where e
r
is the relative
permittivity or dielectric constant of the dielectric
and e
o
= 8.85 x 10
-12
F/m is the permittivity of air.
Energy stored between the plates is given by W =
1
/
2
CV
2
(J)
H. Chan; Mohawk College 45
Types of Capacitors
N Fixed capacitors: e.g. ceramic, plastic film,
mica, electrolytic, and surface- mount types.
N Electrolytic capacitors are frequently either
aluminum or tantalum type and both are
polarized.
N Variable capacitors: e.g. variable plate and
trimmer/padder types.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 46
Capacitors in Parallel
For capacitors in parallel, the effective plate area
is the sum of the individual plates.
Total capacitance: C
T
= C
1
+ C
2
+ . . + C
n

Capacitor voltage: V
1
= V
2
= . . V
n
= E
Total charge: Q
T
= Q
1
+ Q
2
+ . . + Q
n

E C
1

C
2

C
n
V
n

+ + +
- - -
V
2
V
1

H. Chan; Mohawk College 47
Capacitors In Series
V
1
V
2
V
n

V
T

C
1
C
2
C
n

+ +
+
-
-
-
Total capacitance, C
T
= 1/(1/C
1
+ 1/C
2
+ . . . + 1/C
n
)
m
X
m
T
X
T
X
V
C
C
or V
C
C
V
Total voltage, V
T
= V
1
+ V
2
+ . . . + V
n
= E
Voltage divider rule for series capacitors:
Charges are the same, i.e. Q
1
= Q
2
= . . . = Q
n
E
H. Chan; Mohawk College 48
Capacitor Charging
v
c
= E(1-e
-t/t
)
i

= (E/R)e
-t/t
t = RC
v
R
= Ee
-t/t
E
C
a
b
R
+
-
c
Transient
Interval
Steady
State
t
v
c
v
E
t
i
0
0
E
R
i
H. Chan; Mohawk College 49
Capacitor Charging (contd)
Transient Region:
When the switch is moved to position a, current jumps
to E/R amps (i.e. like a short circuit), then decays
exponentially to zero, while voltage rises exponentially
from zero to E volts.
Note: after 1, v
C
= 0.632E and after 5, v
C
= 0.993E.
Steady State Region:
The voltage and current stop changing. V
C
= E and I
C
=
0 ; therefore the capacitor looks like an open circuit
when fully charged.
H. Chan; Mohawk College 50
Capacitor Discharging
v
c
= V
o
e
-t/t
i = -(V
o
/R)e
-t/t
t = RC
v
R
= -V
o
e
-t/t
E
C
a
b
R
+
-
c
t
v
v
t
i
0
0
R
i
V
o
t
c
V
o
H. Chan; Mohawk College 51
Universal Time Constant Charging & Discharging
Curves
H. Chan; Mohawk College 52
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