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Rohit Ramachandran Prashant Awasthi Prateek Kumar Nikhil Anish [PGDM SECTION A

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Organizational Behavior

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ATTITUDES & VALUES

Defining Attitudes
 Attitude is a hypothetical construct  Cannot be directly observed – inferred from what people say and do  Attitude objects are concrete, abstract, about people, groups of people and inanimate objects  Behaviour towards objects is dependent upon attitude towards objects  Attitudes tend to persist unless something is done to change them  Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favourable to very unfavourable.  Attitudes are directed towards some object about which a person has feelings or affect and beliefs
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Organizational Behavior

HOW

MUCH DO YOU SEE OF AN ICEBERG?

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ONLY 10% OF ANY ICEBERG IS VISIBLE. THE REMAINING 90% IS BELOW SEA LEVEL.

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KNOWN TO OTHERS

BEHAVIOR

SEA LEVEL

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UNKNOWN TO OTHERS

VALUES – STANDARDS – JUDGMENTS

ATTITUDE
MOTIVES – ETHICS - BELIEFS
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Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Three components of an attitude:

Affective Cognitive

The opinion or belief segment of an attitude

The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude

Organizational Behavior

Behavioral

Attitude

An intention to behave in a certain way toward 6 someone or something

THREE COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
 Cognitive Component – The opinion or belief segment of an attitude.  Affective Component – The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude.  Behavioral Component – An intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something.
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Organizational Behavior

Festinger’s Cognitive Dissonance
 Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes  People’s attitudes or beliefs can be consonant (in line), dissonant (at odds), or not related to each other  If dissonant, we experience psychological discomfort  Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency  Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes, modifying the behaviors, or through rationalization  Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:

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 Importance of elements
 Degree of individual influence  Rewards involved in dissonance
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MODERATING VARIABLES
 The most powerful moderators of the attitudebehavior relationship are:  Importance of the attitude  Correspondence to behavior  Accessibility  Existence of social pressures  Personal and direct experience of the attitude.
Attitudes Predict Behavior

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Moderating Variables

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CHANGING ATTITUDES
 1. 2.  Barriers to changing attitudes: Prior commitment Insufficient information Methods to overcome barriers and change attitudes: Providing new information Use of fear Resolving Discrepancies Influence of friends and peers The co-opting approach
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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WHAT ARE THE MAJOR JOB ATTITUDES?

 Job Satisfaction  A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics  Job Involvement  Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth  Psychological Empowerment  Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy
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Organizational Behavior

 Organizational Commitment  Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization.  Three dimensions:  Affective – emotional attachment to organization  Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying  Normative - moral or ethical obligations  Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees.  Less important now than in past – now perhaps more of occupational commitment, loyalty to 12 profession rather than a given employer.
Organizational Behavior

 Perceived Organizational Support (POS)  Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.  Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive.  High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance.  Employee Engagement  The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job.  Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company.
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OUTCOMES OF JOB SATISFACTION  Job Performance  Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied!  The causality may run both ways.  Organizational Citizenship Behaviors  Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness.  Customer Satisfaction  Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty.  Absenteeism 14  Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work.
Organizational Behavior

 Turnover  Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.  Many moderating variables in this relationship.  Economic environment and tenure  Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers  Workplace Deviance  Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw.

Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction. 15

Organizational Behavior

VALUES
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.  Attributes of Values:  Content Attribute – that the mode of conduct or endstate is important  Intensity Attribute – just how important that content is.  Value System  A person’s values rank ordered by intensity 16  Tends to be relatively constant and consistent
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IMPORTANCE OF VALUES
 Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors  Influence our perception of the world around us  Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong”  Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others

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Organizational Behavior

VALUES
 Values differ across cultures.  Hofstede’s Framework for assessing culture – five value dimensions:
     Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation

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