HEAT EXCHANGERS

HEAT EXCHANGER SO FAR………..
 Types of Heat Exchanger  Application of Heat Exchanger

 Heat Exchanger Design Consideration
 Factors Affecting Design  Heat Transfer Co-efficient

 Temperature Approach

SCOPE OF PRESENTATION
 Fouling in Heat Exchanger  Pressure Drop  Design consideration  Fluid Allocation  Calculation of Shell and Tube Heat

exchanger

FOULING IN HEAT EXCHANGER
“Fouling” is a general term that includes any kind of deposition of extraneous material that appears upon the heat transfer area during the lifetime of the heat exchanger TYPES OF FOULING  Precipitation fouling  Particulate fouling  Chemical reaction fouling  Corrosion fouling  Biological fouling

MATERIALS SELECTION FOR FOULING SERVICES
Copper-bearing alloy such as
 90-10 copper- nickel  70-30 copper- nickel  83-17-0.4 copper-nickel-chromium

PRESSURE DROP
Pressure drop in Heat Exchanger is made up of three losses
 Frictional loss due to flow
 Loss due to changes in direction  Losses due to sudden expansion or

contraction

DESIGN CONSIDERATION
 Number of shells  Tube selection
Type Length Diameter

and Wall Thickness Head

 Type of Head
Stationary

Head  Tube Layout  Baffles

Rear

 Tube Layouts

There are four types of tube layouts
 Square (900)


 

Rotated square (450)
Triangular (300) Rotated triangular (600)

PITCH LAYOUT

60º

TUBE SPACING LAYOUTS FOR TUBE SHEET

BAFFLES
 Two types of baffles are used in shell and

tube heat exchanger

Transverse Baffles
Longitudinal Baffles

DISC AND DOUGHNUT BAFFLES

TUBES

Number of Tubes:

 It depends on fluid flow rates and the

available pressure drop
 No. of tubes selected such that the tube side

velocity is 0.9 to 2.4 m/sec and shell side velocity is 0.6 to 1.5 m/sec
 Lower velocity limits corresponds to limiting

the fouling and upper velocity limits corresponds to erosion

 Tube side passes:

Almost all cases we have even number of tube side passes owing to factors of stress etc mechanical design for odd passes is difficult Large number of tubes increase fluid velocity, heat transfer coefficient and minimize fouling. However this leads to increase in pressure drop and need for more pumping

SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

FLUID ALLOCATION
 Tube side is preferred under these

circumstances
 Fluid

which are prone to foul  Corrosive fluids  Toxic fluids to increase containment  Stream with low flow rates to obtain increase velocities and turbulence  High pressure streams

 Material of construction

 Non-Corrosive service
Material Typical service Aluminium and T < -100 0C austenic chromiumnickel steel Carbon steel -100 < T < 0 0C Refractorylined steel 0 < T < 500 0C

 Corrosive Service
Material
Carbon Steel

Typical service
Mildly corrosive fluids

Ferritic chromium steel Tubes for moderately corrosive service Aluminium Mildly corrosive fluids High nickel-chromium- Resistant to mineral molybdenum alloys acids

THE CALCULATION OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
 Shell Side Film Co-efficient
• ho.De/k = 0.36 (De.G/μ)0.55 (Cp.μ/k)1/3 (μ/μw) 0.14

 Shell Side Equivalent Diameter  De = Wetted Perimeter  4 x free Area  For square pitch  De = 4 (PT2 – πdo2/4)  πdo  For triangular pitch  De = 4 (0.43 PT2 – πdo2/8)  πdo/2

Tube side Heat Transfer Co-efficient  Dittus-Bolter equation  Sieder-Tate equation
 Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient

1 = 1 + 1 do + xw. do + Ro + Ri di Uo ho hi di kw. dm do True Temperature Difference

Q = U.A. tm = W.C.(T1-T2) = w.c. (t2-t1)  tm = True Temperature  tm = LMTD x FT FT = correction factor

Pressure Drop in Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger
 Tube Side

 P = 4.f L u2ρ 2d f = 0.079 Re-0.25 f = 0.046 Re-0.2  Shell Side  P = f Gs2 Ds L 2 x 106 de B S f = 1.87 Re-0.2

Where,

Gs = shell side mass velocity Ds = shell diameter de = equivalent diameter L = tube length S = baffle spacing
Bundle Diameter Db = do (N/k)1/n Db = bundle diameter N =total no. of tubes do = Outside diameter of tube

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