AIR COOLERS

PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Fluid to

be cooled flows through the tubes, either finned or bare, and air is blown from outside to take away the heat Economic selection when
Temperature difference : 15-25 degC Heat loads > 2.52 Mkcal / hr

SELECTION
Required

cooling water not available Make up water is expensive Space permits installation of of such big unit.

CONSTRUCTION
Horizontal and

vertical units are in use Horizontal units are preferred for ease of installation Vertical units are used for maximum draining Angled sections in condensing services and positive draining. Typical angle 30 deg

HEADR DESIGN
PLUG

HEADER

HEADER DESIGN
COVER

PLATE HEADER

TUBESHEET JOINTS
EXPANSION &

GROOVE WELDING SEAL WELDING STRENGTH WELDING

DETAILS
Fan Bays: 2

are most commonly used Tubes: Length 6-50 feet; Width: 4-30 feet Fins: ½ inch, 5/8 inch

TYPES OF AIR COOLER

TYPES OF AIR COOLER
FORCED DRAFT Consumes less power Equipment is located at lower temperature zone, hence less maintenance Lower exit velocities (3-4 m/sec), hence poor distribution and chances of back-mixing and sensitive to cross currents Offers less pressure drop INDUCED DRAFT Consumes high power Equipment is located at higher temperature zone, hence prone for maintenance Higher exit velocities (10-15 m/sec), hence better distribution and no chances of back-mixing and less sensitive to cross currents Offers high pressure drop

Cheaper Option

Expensive Cannot be used for temp > 350 degC

TEMPERATURE CONTROL
2

speed motor speed Variable speed drive Inlet / Outlet louvers Variable pitch fans Warm air circulation

WARM AIR CIRCULATION
For

extreme variation in air temperature, which might cause freezing of process fluid, certain warm air is circulated back to inlet of the unit.

WARM AIR CIRCULATION

LOCATION
Should

be located away from building Forced draft coolers are preferably located high above ground, above pipe racks to avoid backmixing Avoid placing 2 coolers close to each other. Avoid placing downwind of heat generating device.

SAMPLE CALCULATION PROCEDURE

INPUTS Data of hot fluid Physical properties, Heat load, Inlet / outlet temperature Allowable pressure drop Data of air Ambient temperature Elevation

SAMPLE CALCULATION PROCEDURE
 CALCULATIONS

STEPS  Assume overall HTC from chart  Calculate temperature rise and CMTD  Calculate Area  Calculate no of tubes and tube-side pressure drop  Calculate tube side heat transfer coefficient  Calculate air side heat transfer coefficient based on charts available (function of air face mass velocity)  Calculate overall HTC. Shall be less than assumed.

SAMPLE CALCULATION PROCEDURE
 FAN

CALCULATIONS  Number of fans (Fanned section length / bay width <= 1.8)  Fan Area:
Face area: Projected area of fan / Face of section covered by fan; 0.40 FAPF = (0.40) x Fa / No of Fans

SAMPLE CALCULATION PROCEDURE

Fan static pressure drop
(Fp) (N) / (Dr) Fp: Pressure drop factor (function of air face velocity) N: No of tube rows Dr: Avg air density

Fan

dynamic pressure loss

(flow rate / area)2 x (Dr)

Fan Power