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Definition: An acute, infectious blood borne disease. Cause: Malaria parasites hosted by female mosquito: Anopheles mosquito.


2 million deaths per year worldwide occur in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan African countries about 400 million new cases per year worldwide


aria" (meaning "bad air" in Italian) was first used in English in 1740 by H. Walpole when describing the disease C. Laveran in 1880 was the first to identify the parasites in human blood In 1889, R. Ross discovered that mosquitoes transmitted malaria


vivax Plasmodium malariae Plasmodium ovale Plasmodium falciparum Plasmodium knowlesi

Fever Headache Vomiting Chills muscle aches Cough Diarrhea Jaundice

one to three weeks (seven to 21 days)

The classic and most used diagnostic test for malaria is the blood smear on a microscope slide that is stained (Giemsa stain) to show the parasites inside red blood cells

slide of a Giemsa stained smear of red blood cells showing Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum parasites. SOURCE: CDC/Steven Glenn, Laboratory & Consultation Division

Nursing Diagnosis: High body metabolism due to immune response (interaction of antigen & wbc) as evidenced by Pyrexia & shivering

Nursing Intervention
TSB Ventilation Temp

monitoring Anti-Malaria Rx to reverse the pathophysiology of the disease.

Nursing Diagnosis: Nausea, vomiting due to cerebral malaria, effect of bilirubin on the liver

Nursing Intervention Anti emetic per prescription Measure volume of vomitus as output & record

Nursing Diagnosis: Potential dehydration due to vomiting & fever

Nursing Intervention Adjust fluid intake to output. More fluid orally, if no vomiting Urine output to watch oliguria.

Nursing Diagnosis: Potential oliguria, signifying renal failure due to bilirubin

Nursing Intervention Urine output to watch oliguria. (Normal=30ml/hou r Urine dipstic for proteinuria & hematuria

Nursing DX Potential anemia due to hemolysis of RBC & Platelets, as evidenced by heamturia

Nurse Interventions Hb monitoring Iron preparates e.g. Pregamol HP diet, Vitamins & Minerals Avoid injuries

Nursing DX

Nurse Interventions

Potential cerebral Malaria (swelling of brain cells, suppression of vital centres e.g. cardiac, respiratory centres as evidenced by headache, confusion

Monitoring of consciousness level Quite environment Vital signs monitoring if not Observe consciousness level. Safety measures