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Validation of a new grid Boltzmann equation solver, Acuros, for dose calculation

• Dose Calculation Algorithms used in
TPS

Treatment Planning Systems (TPS)
Depth Dose(PDD), Tissue Air Ratio (TAR)

• Simple dose calculation- Percentage

• Pencil Beam Convolution (PBC) • Anisotropic Analytic Algorithms (AAA),
Collapsed Cone Convolution (CCC)

• Monte Carlo (MC), Acuros XB (AXB)

AAA
• Analytical photon dose calculation
algorithm based on a pencil beam convolution technique

PBC -It is point oriented and thus faster than a full 3-D convolution algorithm and uses the same physical data base to characterize a clinical beam as a full 3-D convolution algorithm. It is shown that photon therapy beams can be characterized with great accuracy from a combination of precalculated Monte Carlo energy deposition kernels and dose distributions measured in a water phantom

Acuros XB algorithms
• Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation
Solvers, similar to the classic MC methods, for accurate modeling of dose deposition in heterogenous media.

Linear Blotzmann Transport Equation

Linear Boltzmann Transport Equation

• After many manipulation of the equation
through solving boundary equations,using Scalar flux and busbridge theorem of source iteration, we can approximate I

RapidArc Stereotactic Treatments for small fields

• a volumetric arc therapy that delivers
3D dose distribution with a single 360 rotation of LINAC gantry

• Made possible by the rotation speed of
the gantry, movement of the MLCs and the delivery dose rate

Impact on RapidArc
• RapidArc plan Calculations repeated for
both algorithms, AAA and Acuros XB, for all spot size configurations

• The aim is to see if Acuros XB is
comparable to AAA in RapidArc for small fields

• Modelling point of view, photon source
is not a point source, might not be fully visible from the point of measurement, partially occluded by the collimating system

Why small fields?

• fields might be small compared to the
maximum lateral range of secondary electrons, consequently having a strong dependence of computed and delivery dose on compositio and density of irridiated media

Results
Best agreement with measurement for Acuros XB was spot size 1mm

Comparison between measurements of Acuros XB and AAA for various test fields of spot size 1mm

Greatest dose difference when AXB spot size is 0.0-1.0 mm

• fixed spot size to 1mm, varying only
DLG (dosimetric leaf gap)

Impact on RapidArc

• blurring effect observed when
lowering DLG

Discussions
• 2 main challenges in small field
management, measurement and accuracy;implementation of dose calculation in algorithms

• first challenge solved by using
equipment with higher sensitivity

• second challenge- by proper modelling
of spot size

Reports acceptable • Acuros XB and AAA show
characteristics for stereotactic small fields provided adequate tuning of configuration parameters is performed

• Both algorithms can be considered
safely applicable for stereotactic treatments with field sizes greater than 1 to 2 cm per side

• For extremely small targets, jaw
settings might be kept above threshold and shelding and modulation generated by MLC only

Further possible research routes
• Instead of using a homogenous slab
phantom, use a heterogenous slab phantom ( lung, head & neck) and voxelize the domain for small fields ( Vassiliev et al)

• Comparison of accuracy of AAA and
AcurosXB in hetereogenous phantom