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Channel Estimation in

OFDM Systems
Zhibin Wu
Yan Liu
Xiangpeng Jing
OUTLINE
OFDM System Introduction

Channel Estimation Techniques

Performance Evaluation

Conclusion
OFDM Overview
 Divides high-speed serial information signal into multiple
lower-speed sub-signals:
 Transmits simultaneously at different frequencies in parallel.
 Modulation ( BPSK, PSK,QPSK,16QAM, …).
 Pilot sub-carriers used to prevent frequency and phase shift
errors.
 Usage of cyclic prefix for lower multi-path distortion
 Controlled overlapping of bands in one channel
 Max spectral efficiency (Nyquist rate)
 Easy implementation using inverse FFTs
 Easy time-freq. Synchronization
 Modulate by switching between time and frequency domain

Introduction to OFDM Systems
Time-Frequency View
Some Assumptions
 Usage of cyclic Prefix
 Impulse response of the channel shorter
than Cyclic Prefix
 Slow fading effects so that the channel is
time-invariant over the symbol interval
 Rectangular Windowing of the transmitted
pulses
 Perfect Synchronization of transmitter and
receiver
 Additive, white, Gaussian channel noise
System Architecture
System Architecture (cont’d)
1. Input to time domain
2. Guard Interval
3. Channel
4. Guard Removal
5. Output to frequency
domain

6. Output


7. Channel Estimation
( ) ( ) { } 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 ÷ = = N n k X IDFT n x
( )
( )
( )
¹
´
¦
÷ =
÷ + ÷ ÷ = +
=
1 ,..., 1 , 0 ,
1 ,..., 1 , ,
N n n x
N N n n N x
n x
g g
f
( ) ( ) ( ) n w n h n x y
f f
+ © =
( ) ( ) 1 ,..., 1 , 0 ÷ = = N n n y n y
f
( ) ( ) { } 1 ,..., 2 , 1 , 0 ÷ = = N k n y DFT k Y
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 ,..., 1 , 0 ÷ =
+ + =
N k
k W k I k H k X k Y
ICI AWGN Channel
( )
( )
( )
1 ,..., 1 , 0 ÷ = = N k
k H
k Y
k X
e
e
Estimated
Channel
Pilot for Channel Estimation
T
i
m
e

Carriers
T
i
m
e

Carriers
 Comb Type:
 Part of the sub-
carriers are always
reserved as pilot for
each symbol

 Block Type:
 All sub-carriers is
used as pilot in a
specific period

Block-type Channel Estimation

 LS: Least Square Estimation



{ }
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
=
=
÷
÷
÷
1
0
1 1 0
1
.
.
.
,..., ,
N
N
LS
y
y
y
x x x diag X where
y X h
Comb-type Estimation
( ) ( )
( )
¹
´
¦
=
+ =
=
÷ =
0 ,
1 ,..., 1 , . inf
l m
p
x
L l data
l mL X k X
Np pilot signals uniformly inserted in X(k)
L=Number of Carriers/Np
xp(m) is the mth pilot carrier value

{Hp(k) k=0,1,…,Np} , channel at pilot sub-carriers
Xp input at the kth pilot sub-carrier
Yp output at the kth pilot sub-carrier
LS Estimate
( )
( )
( )
1 ,..., 1 , 0 ÷ = =
p
p
p
p
N k
k X
k Y
k H
LMS Estimate
Xp(k)
LMS +
e(k) -
Yp(k)
Interpolation for Comb-type
 Linear Interpolation





 Second Order
Interpolation




( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
L l
m H
L
l
m H m H
l mL H k H
p p p
e e
< s
+ ÷ + =
+ =
0
1
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )( )
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
+ =
=
+
÷
+ + ÷
+
=
÷
+ ÷ ÷ =
÷
=
N l
m
p
H c m
p
H c m
p
H c
c
c
c
where
l mL H k H
e e
/
1
1 0
1
1
,
2
1
1
, 1 1
0
,
2
1
1
o
o o
o o
o o
Simulation Parameters
Parameter Specifications
FFT Size 64
Number of Carriers 64
Pilot Ratio 1/16
Guard Length 16
Guard Type Cyclic Extension
data rate of OFDM signal 1Mbps/sub-carrier
Signal Constellation 16QAM
System structure in MATLAB Simulation
OFDM Transmitter
OFDM Receiver
Received and Recovered Signals
Received signal phases are distorted by multi-path fading
Comb-LS Estimation
 Combating multipath rayleigh fading with RLS adaptive
equalization
 A detail simulation with MATLAB
 20 multipath, random phase, and weibull distribution of
amplitutde
S
y
m
b
o
l

E
r
r
o
r

R
a
t
e

Comb-LS Estimation
Filter length .vs. Sample Rate
1. Keep the ratio of F/S, increase S
2. Keep S, increase F.
Observed Symbol error rate with F ( filter length ) and
S ( samples per symbol)
Conclusion
 OFDM System Introduction
 Block Type
 Direct or Decision Feedback
 Comb Type
 LS or LMS estimation at pilot frequencies
 Interpolation Techniques
 Linear
 Second Order
 Time Domain
 Modulation
 BPSK,QPSK,16QAM,DQPSK
 Some Results:
 Comb Type performs better since it tracks fast fading
channels.
 RLS algorithm vs. LMS algorithm