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The Flow ~


 Concept Overview
 Transmitter Section

 Receiving Section
 Future Scope

“Power Theft” is a non-ignorable crime that is highly prevalent, and at the same time it directly affects the economy of a nation. Electricity Board suffers a total loss of 8 % in revenue due to power theft every year. A complete and comprehensive tool is required to prevent power theft, it should be very simple to understand and easy to implement.

Meter Tampering Methods Include :

--Meter tampering, meter tilting. --Meter bypassing. --Changing connection. --Direct tapping from line.

Theft Identification Methods :

--Tamper proof seals and labels. --Tamper resistant screws / locks. -- Check meter and remote meter readers. -- Tamper alarms and sensors.

In this case, the consumption recurred by the check meter is compared with the revenue meter‟s consumption.

Includes 4 Units – Transmitting, Receiving, Counter and Processing sections.

   

Consists: Sensing Unit, PLL-100-300Khz, CMos Switch, Buffer IFT

 

Sensing Unit uses Opto-Coupler. It employs infrared light source and a photo – detector. Output is given to the Cmos Switch. PLL act as a Carrier Signal Generator Pll has a VCO to generate high frequency carrier signal. Buffer unit is used as a current amplifier and an isolation circuit. Each consumer unit sends its data at a synchronized time with a perticular frequency using the IFT.

IFT  Clipper  PLL  12-bit Ripple -counter. Microcontroller and Alarm device

A Typical IFT : Consist of a mixer, Filter and an Amplifier It produces a tuned Frequency output of band 300Khz with center frequency 1Khz. The IFT is externally tuned to the same value as that of the transmitter so that only signals of tuned value enters into the receiver circuit

    

The tuning is done on a repeated sequence,  Initially all the user data signals are tuned and received and then IFT is tuned for the distribution transformer data signal. Next the received signal is sent to Clipper circuit. The clipped signal is then fed to the PLL unit.
 

Its function is to lock the output frequency and phase to the frequency and phase of the input signal and it acts as a tone detector. The output of PLL is low whenever it goes into „lock‟ state.

The way in which a PLL FM demodulator operates is quite straightforward. The loop consists of a phase detector into which the incoming signal is passed, along with the output from the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) contained within the phase locked loop. The output from the phase detector is passed into a loop filter and then used as the control voltage for the VCO.

With no modulation applied and the carrier in the centre position of the pass-band the voltage on the tune line to the VCO is set to the mid position. However if the carrier deviates in frequency, the loop will try to keep the loop in lock

The signal from the PLL is sent to Buffer and at a predefined rate it is given to ADC converter and then to the Microcontroller. Microcontroller receives the 8bit data from different users as well as the 8bit data form the distribution transformer. It also receives 8-bit hex byte from keyboard as a threshold. If the compared values is larger than the threshold the Alarm is set.

Although this was proposed by the some researchers to the T.N.E.B officials. It was not yet implemented due to varying types of new energy meter models. In future wireless devices can be embedded within the energy meter and data base can be maintained for each and every consumer. Using CDMA technique will be a convenient option.