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• Global system of interconnected computer networks that interchange data by packet switching using standardized TCP/IP protocol
• Called ‘ network of networks’ • Internet carries various information sources and services, such as electronic mail, chat, file transfer, file sharing, gaming and other resources of www

Different types of Internet connection


• Using modems to convert the computer bits and bytes into modulated signals that phone lines can transmit

• Signals are received by the modem at the ISP and demodulated into bits and bytes for the computer

2.Direct Connection
• Direct connection to the ISP where there is a fixed cable or dedicated phone line to the ISP • ADSL- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber line enables faster data transmission over copper tel lines. • Utilizes frequencies that are not used by the voice tel call

• A splitter or micro-filter allows a single telephone connection to be used for both ADSL and tel calls at the same time

• With growing popularity of ADSL broadband technology, use of ISDN become restricted as backup network for govt agencies, banks and other institutions

Commonly used internet protocols
• • • • Transmission control protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol File Transfer Protocol Telnet





• Set of rules or protocol that governs transfer of hypertext btw 2 or more computers • Hypertext is text that is specially coded using a standard system called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML). HTML is used to make links which can be textual, graphic and when clicked on can link user to another resoucre (HTML, graphics, text, sound )

HTTP- Hypertext Transfer Protocol

• HTTP is also based on client-server principle • When the user selects a hyperlink, client program on the computer uses the HTTP to contact the server, identify the resource, ask the server to respond with an action • Sever accepts the request and uses HTTP to respond to or perform the action • HTTP provides access to FTP, SMTP, Telnet, Gopher etc

• Protocol or set of rules that enables one computer to connect to another computer (client-server principle)
• Process is called remote login

• User’s computer that initiates the connection is called local computer and the machine it is being connected to is called remote or host computer

• Remote computer can be physically located in the next room, building, country
• Once connection is made, the local comp emulates the host comp- the user’s monitor will display what is taking place on the remote computer during the telnet session • Telnet allows users to access internet resources like library catalogues, debugging, testing purposes etc

File transfer Protocol (FTP)
• It is the part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. • Protocol or the set of rules which enables files to be transferred between computers • FTP works on the client-server principle • Files that can be transferred and stored on computers are called FTP servers

• It is the simplest Protocol for download/uploading a files from /to a server and is the most commonly used one.

• FTP can be used with a simple command line interface,such as MS-DOS prompt or with a commercial progrea that comes with a graphical user interface.

TCP/IP Protocols
• Collection of protocols or rules that govern the way data travels from one machine to another across networks • 2 components- TCP and IP TCP component • It forms the higher layer of TCP/IP . – Breaks the data up into packets that network can handle – Verifies whether all the packets have arrived at the destination – Reassembles the data

IP component • It forms the lower layer of the TCP /IP. – Enables the network to read the envelope and forward data to its destination • Defines how much data can fit in an envelope or packet