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Bluetooth Technology

What Is Bluetooth?
• Designed to be used to connect both mobile devices and peripherals that currently require a wire • Simplifying communications between: - devices and the internet - data synchronization

• “USB without wires”
• Short range wireless radio technology - operate range of 10 meters

Who Started Bluetooth?
Ericsson Mobile Communication
• Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) -5 founding members -Ericsson, Nokia, IBM, Intel & Toshiba • Promoter’s Group - 3COM, Lucent, Microsoft, Motorola • Now over 1900 members

Why Bluetooth?
Before Bluetooth, wireless technology like infra red data communication had two problems – 1)Line of Sight 2) One to One • Using “data synchronizing” BLUETOOTH OVERCOMES THESE PROBLEMS

Avoiding Interference : Hopping
• Bluetooth uses a technique called spread-spectrum frequency hopping.

• In this technique, a device will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range • Transmitters change frequency 1600 times a second

Piconet and Scatternet
• Piconet – Basic unit of Bluetooth networking – Master and one to seven slave devices – Master determines channel and phase • Scatternet – Device in one piconet may exist as master or slave in another piconet – Allows many devices to share same area – Makes efficient use of bandwidth

Piconet

Master

Active Slave

Parked Slave

Standby

Bluetooth Protocol Stack
Applications
IP SDP

RFCOMM

Application Protocol

Middleware Protocol

Data
Audio

L2CAP
Link Manager

Transport Protocol

Baseband RF

Transport Layer Protocol
Radio Frequency (RF) Sending and receiving modulated bit streams
Baseband Defines the timing, framing Flow control on the link. Link Manager Managing the connection states. Enforcing Fairness among slaves. Power Management Logical Link Control &Adaptation Protocol Handles multiplexing of higher level protocols Segmentation & reassembly of large packets Device discovery & QoS
SDP

Applications
IP
RFCOMM

Data
Audio L2CAP Link Manager

Baseband RF

Middle Layer Protocol
Middleware Protocol Group Middleware Protocol Group
SDP

Applications
IP

RFCOMM

Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) Means for applications to discover device info, services and its characteristics. TCP/IP Network Protocols for packet data communication, routing RFCOMM Cable replacement protocol, emulation of serial ports over wireless network

Data
Audio

L2CAP
Link Manager

Baseband RF

Application Layer Protocol
Middleware Protocol Group Application Protocol Group
SDP

Applications
IP

RFCOMM

Data
Consists of Bluetooth aware as well as un-aware applications. Audio

L2CAP
Link Manager

Baseband RF

Packet Structure
72 bits 54 bits 0 - 2744 bits

Access Code

Header

Payload

Voice No CRC No retries FEC (optional)

Data

CRC

ARQ
FEC (optional)

Forming a Piconet
Needs two parameters --- a) Hopping pattern of the radio it wishes to connect. b) Phase within the pattern i.e. the clock offset of the hops.

The global ID defines the hopping pattern.

Piconet 1

Piconet 2

The master shares its global ID and its clock offset with the other radios which become slaves.

Slave Master

Master
The global ID and the clock parameters are exchanged using a FHS (Frequency Hoping Synchronization) packet.

Scatternet

Connection State Machine

Inquiry

Page

Standby Transmit data

Connected

Park

Hold

Sniff

Connection State Machine
Inquiry Scan A device that wants to be discovered will periodically enter this mode and listen for inquiry packets. Inquiry Device sends an Inquiry packet addressed to GIAC or DIAC Transmission is repeated on the inquiry hop sequence of frequencies. Inquiry Response When an inquiry message is received in the inquiry scan state, a response packet (FHS) containing the responding device address must be sent after a random number of slots.

Connection State Machine
Page The master uses the clock information, about the slave to be paged, to determine where in the hop sequence, the slave might be listening in the page scan mode. The master sends a page message Page Scan The page scan substate can be entered by the slave from the standby state or the connection state. It listens to packets addressed to its DAC. Page Response On receiving the page message, the slave enters the slave page response substate. It sends back a page response consisting of its ID packet which contains its DAC, at the frequency for the next slot from the one in which page message was received.

Power Control Modes
Sniff Mode low power mode the slave listens for transmissions only at fixed intervals Hold Mode Slave temporarily does not support ACL packets on the channel . By this capacity can be made free to do other things like scanning, paging, inquiring, or attending another piconet. The slave unit keeps its active member address Park Mode low power mode with very little activity. The parked slaves regularly listen for beacon signals at intervals. The parked slave has to be informed about a transmission in a beacon channel Any message to be sent to a parked member are sent over the broadcast channel. It also helps the master to have more than seven slaves.

Applications of Bluetooth
Generic access Service discovery Serial port Generic object exchange LAN access Dial Up Networking Fax Cordless Telephone Intercom Headset Object Push File Transfer Synchronization Procedures for link management Protocol for discovering offered services Replacement for serial port cable Define client server relationship for object movement Protocol between a mobile computer and fixed LAN Allows a notebook computer to call via mobile phone Allows a mobile fax machine to talk to a mobile phone Connects a handset and its local base station Digital Walkie -Talkie Allows hands free voice communication Provides a way to exchange simple objects Provides more general file transfer facility Permits a PDA to synchronize with another computer

Versions
• Bluetooth Specification Version 1.1 and Earlier * Bluetooth technology was introduced in 1998. * Versions 1.0 and 1.0B: lack of interoperability among devices. * Version 1.1: first truly successful operating version of Bluetooth technology.

• Bluetooth Version 1.2
* Adaptive Frequency Hopping * Faster Connection Time

* Improved Quality of Service (QoS)
* Extended SCO

Versions continued..
• Bluetooth Version 2.0  Backward compatible with previous Bluetooth versions  Three times faster transmission speed (10 times in some cases)  Enhanced data rate of up to 3 Mbps  Lower power consumption  Broadcast/multicast support

• Bluetooth Version 2.1  Improved Pairing  Enhanced Power Optimization

Versions continued..
• Bluetooth Version 3.0  Unicast Connectionless Data - lowers latency and provides faster more reliable experiences  Enhanced Power Control - ensures less dropouts; a common complaint amount Bluetooth users • Bluetooth Cost  low cost  operates on an unlicensed radio spectrum: no charge for communicating between two Bluetooth devices

Security
Threats • Bluejacking • Bluesnarfing • Bluebugging Solution • device level security • service level security

Advantages (+)
•Bluetooth Devices are Wireless •Bluetooth Technology is Inexpensive •Bluetooth is Automatic •Standardized Protocol = Interoperability •Low Interference •Low Energy Consumption •Share Voice and Data •Instant Personal Area Network (PAN) •Upgradable

Disadvantages (-)
Data Transfer Rate Range Security Battery Use

Thank You