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HARDWARE ASSEMBLING

AND INSTALLATION

S.MAHESH KUMAR, PRAXISS TECHNOLOGIES COIMBATORE.

HARDWARE
• Computer is made up of multiple physical
components of computer hardware, upon

which can be installed an operating system and
a multitude of software to perform the

operator's desired functions.

H/W COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER
Some of the primary components of a Computer
Input Device Output Device Removable media devices System Cabinet

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Input Device
• Keyboard(Text Device) • Optical Mouse(Pointing Device) • Joystick(Gaming Device)

• Webcam(Video Device)
• Microphone(Audio Device)

CONT… Output Device
• Monitor (visual display unit)

–CRT, LCD, Plasma, penetron)
• Speakers(multimedia speakers)

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Removable media devices • Floppy disk( 8 inch, 5 inch, 31/2 inch, 2 inch) • Optical disc(CD Drive ,DVD Drive, Blu-ray Disc) • USB flash drive(thumb drives, jump drives, pen drives) • Memory card(flash memory data storage device

CONT… System Cabinet
• Microprocessor • RAM • Video/ Sound card • Power supply • Hard drive • Motherboard

MICROPROCESSOR

RAM
• Random Access Memory , a type of computer
memory that can be accessed randomly, that is

any byte of memory can be accessed without
touching the preceding bytes.

• Its based on volatile memory.

RAM TYPES
 Common RAM Types are • DDR1 • DDR2 • DDR3  Some of the leading manufacturers • Kingston • Transcend • Dynet

DDR1
• DDR-Double Data Rate • It need 2.5 volt power • 184 pins • Date Rate : 200- 400 Mbps

DDR2
• DDR2 RAM is an improved version of DDR memory that is faster and more efficient • 240 pins • It need 1.8 volt power • Date Rate : 400- 800 Mbps

DDR3
• 240 pins • Date Rate : 800- 1600 Mbps • Higher bandwidth performance, effectively up to 1600 MHz • Higher performance at low power (longer battery life in laptops)

MOTHERBOARD
Motherboard is also known as main board,
system board, logical board)

It is of two types

• SATA

• IDE

REAR VIEW

MOTHERBOARD COMPONENTS
The motherboard is a large rectangular board
with integrated circuitry that connects

• CPU Socket,
• Chip set

• RAM Slot,
• BIOS

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• Disk drives (CD, DVD, hard disk, or any others)
• Buses(Internal Controllers) Buses, External Bus

• Data Ports or the expansion slots

• CMOS Baterry

CPU Socket
• All processors have set of pins that would connect the CPU to the motherboard. • These set of pins are called the Pin Grid Array (PGA). • They fit into a socket layout called Socket 7 into any motherboard.

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A CPU socket provides many functions
including

providing a physical structure to support
the CPU

providing support for a heat sink.

CONT…

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CHIP SET
A motherboard chipset controls all the data that flows through the data channels (buses) of the motherboard. chipset often refers to a specific pair of chips on the motherboard are Northbridge and Southbridge.

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• Northbridge links the CPU, especially main
memory and graphics controllers.

• Southbridge

connects

to

lower-speed

peripheral buses (such as PCI or ISA,

Ethernet, USB, and audio devices.)

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RAM Slot

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• There are usually two slots, though there
may be more.

• If all slots are filled up with existing RAM
modules, you can replace a smaller RAM

chip with a larger one.

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BIOS
• The BIOS is a software that interfaces the major hardware components with the operating system. • It load the operating system When computer turn on. • It is usually stored on a Flash memory chip on the motherboard.

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When you turn on your computer, the
BIOS does several things. This is its usual

sequence:
1. Check the CMOS Setup for custom settings 2. Load the interrupt handlers and device drivers

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3. Initialize registers and power management
4. Perform the power-on self-test (POST)

5. Display system settings
6. Determine which devices are bootable

7. Initiate the bootstrap sequence

DISK DRIVES
A machine that reads data from and writes data onto a disk. There are different types of disk drives
• Hard disk drive (HDD) reads and writes hard disks • Floppy drive (FDD) accesses floppy disks. • Optical drive reads optical disks.

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SATA Connector on mother board

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Hard Disk Drive
SATA type Hard drive cable • It connects the HDD with the MotherBoard.

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IDE type Hard drive cable

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Optical Disk Drive
 A SATA cable is plugged at one end in the DVD

drive, and the other into a SATA header on your
motherboard.

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BUS
 There are two type buses that you will find on the system board. • Internal and external.

 Internal- is basically the lines of communication of
the board to all components.

 The internal bus are control bus, Address Bus, Data
Bus and Power bus.

PORTS
 Serial ports
Serial ports provide a standard connector and

protocol to let you attach devices, such as
modems, USB, to your computer.

CONT…

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Parallel Port
• Parallel ports can be used to connect a host of popular computer peripherals such as Printers ,Scanners ,CD burners, External hard drives, Network adapters.

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USB port
• These USB connectors let you attach everything from mice to printers to your computer quickly and easily.

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 Ethernet port
Built-in Ethernet port is available for connecting the device to a wired network.

EXPANSION SLOT
 PS/2 port • It used to insert keyboard plug (purple) or mouse plug (green) into your computer)

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Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) • AGP is an interface specification that enables

3-D graphics to display quickly on ordinary
personal computers.

• It is a channel for attaching a video card to a
computer's motherboard

CONT…

CONT…
PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
• PCI is an interconnection system between a microprocessor and attached devices. • PCI transmits 32 bits at a time in a 124-pin connection (the extra pins are for power supply and

grounding) and 64 bits in a 188-pin connection in an
expanded implementation.

CONT…

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Power connector
• Originally the motherboard was powered by one 20pin connector. • A 4-pin auxiliary connector providing additional power to the CPU, and a main 24-pin power supply

connector, an extension of the original 20-pin
version.

CONT…

CMOS Baterry
 Provides power to the Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) chip, even while the computer is turned off.

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This chip contains information about the system configuration (e.g., hard disk type, floppy drive types, date and time, and the order in which the computer will look for bootable disks). The CMOS battery allows the CMOS to preserve these settings.

THANK YOU