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Profundización en Bases de Datos Bases de Datos Espaciales UPTC

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Define the raster data model; describe common uses and limitations of this model Define and describe the elements of the raster model List various types of raster data Describe the relationship between raster data and a surface data model List and describe at least 3 data compression schemes used with raster data; identify pros and cons for each scheme Define and describe the two types of data conversion discussed in this chapter
◦ Discuss cell values in the raster model

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The vector data model does not work well with spatial phenomena that vary continuosly over space such as precipitation, elevation, and soil erosion. A better option for representing continuous phenomena is the raster data model. A raster data model use a regular grid to cover the space. The value en each grid cell corresponds to the characteristic of a spatial phenomenon at the cell location. The changes in the cell value reflect the spatial variation of the phenomenon. Unlike the vector data model, the raster data model has not changed of its concept or data format for the past three decades.

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Research on the raster data model has concentred on data structure and data compression. A wide variety of data used in GIS are encoded in raster format:
◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Digital elevation data; Satelital image; Digital orthopotos; Scanned maps; Graphic files

Issues of data storage and retrieval are important to raster data user.

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• A raster represents a continuous surface,
• But for data storage and analysis, a raster is divided into rows, columns, and cells (pixels).
• Raster data represent • points with single cells, • lines with sequences of neighboring cells,

• and areas with collections of contiguous cells.

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Figure 5.1 A continuous elevation raster with darker shades for higher elevations.
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Figure 5.2 Representation of point, line, and area features: raster format on the left and vector format on the right.

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1. Cell value. Each cell in a raster carries a value, which represents the characteristic of a spatial phenomenon at the location denoted by its row and column. The cell value can be integer or floating-point. 2. Cell size. The cell size determines the resolution of the raster data model. 3. Raster bands. A raster may have a single band or multiple bands.

4. Spatial reference. Raster data must have the spatial reference information so that they can align spatially with other data sets in a GIS.
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Figure 5.3 UTM coordinates for the extent and the center of a 30-meter cell.

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1. Satellite

Imagery 2. USGS (US Geological Survey) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) 3. Non.USGS DEMs 4. Global DEMs 5. Digital Orthophotos (DOQ) 6. Bi-Level Scanned Files 7. Digital Raster Graphics (DRGs) 8. Graphic Files 9. GIS Software-Specific Raster Data

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Landsat program (http://landsat.usgs.gov)  Landsat 7 was launched in April 1999.  The spatial resolution of Landsat 7 imagery is 15 meters in the panchromatic band; 30 meters in the six visible, near infrared, and shortwave infrared band; and 60 meters inthe thermal infrared band.  June 2003, Nasa discovered an instrument malfunction of the scan line been colecting image data in the “SLC-off” mode.  Disigned to seasonally monitor small-scale processes on a global scale, such as cycles of vegetation growth, deforestation, agricultural land use, erosio an other forms od land degradation, snow acumuation and melt and urbanization.

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Terra spacecraft, launched in december 1999. (http://terra.nasa.gov/About/)  Terra carries five sensors, of which ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Refelction Radiometer) is the only high- sapatialresolution instrument.  ASTER´s sapatial resolution is 15 meter in the visible and near infrared range, 30 meters in the short wave infrared band, and 90 meters in the thermal infrared band.  A major application of ASTER data products is land cover classification an change detection.

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NOAA´s Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES),
http://edc.usgs.gov/products/satellite/avhrr.html)
Carry

the AVHRR (Advanced Very high Resolutions Radiometer) scanner. Provides data useful for large-area land cover and vegetation mapping. AVHRR data have a spatial resolution of 1.1 kilometer

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The french SPOT satellite series, 1986 (http://www.spot.com) Each SPOT satellite carries two types of sensors. SPOT 1 to 4 acquire single-band Imagery with a 10 meters spatial resolution and multiband imagery with a 20 meter resolution. SPOT 5 launched in may 2002, send back higer resolution: 5 and 2,5 meter in singleband, and 10 meter in multiband.

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Other important satellite programs: In India http://www.isro.org/ INSAT, GSAT,KALPANA, EDUSAT In Japan http://www.jaxa.jp/index_e.html GOSAT, ALOS, AQUA, TRMM,… GeoEye offers imagery collected by the IKONOS and OrbView-3 satellites.
DigitalGlobe’s

QuickBird collects pancromathic images with 61 centimeter resolution and multiespectral images with 61 centimeter resolution. http://www.digitalglobe.com/

◦Pantronomic at 1 meter resolution and multiespectral meter resolution.

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A DEM consist of an arry uniformly spaced elevation data. Is point based. USGS DEMs include the 7.5 minute DEM, 30minute DEM, 1-degree DEM and Alaska DEM. 7.5 minute DEMs provide elevation data at a spacing of 30 meters or 10 meters on a grid in UTM coordinates and referenced to either the north American Datum of 1927. 30 minutes DEM (spacing 60 meters) 1 Degree DEMSs (spacing 100 meters)
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Figure 5.4 DEMs at three resolutions: 30 meters, 10 meters, and 3 meters. The 30-m and 10-m DEMs are USGS DEMs. The 3-m DEM is a derived product from LIDAR data.

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Figure 5.5 USGS 1-meter black-and-white DOQ for Sun Valley, Idaho.
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Figure 5.6 A bi-level scanned file showing soil lines.
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Figure 5.7 USGS DRG for Sun Valley, Idaho. This DRG is outdated compared to the DOQ in Figure 5.5.
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1. Cell-by-Cell Encoding 2. Run Length Encoding 3. Quad Tree

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Figure 5.8 The cell-by-cell data structure records each cell value by row and column.

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Figure 5.9 The run length encoding method records the cell values in runs. Row 1, for example, has two adjacent cells in columns 5 and 6 that are gray or have the value of 1. Row 1 is therefore encoded with one run, beginning in column 5 and ending in column 6. The same method is used to record other rows.
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Figure 5.10 The regional quad tree method divides a raster into a hierarchy of quadrants. The division stops when a quadrant is made of cells of the same value (gray or white). A quadrant that cannot be subdivided is called a leaf node. In the diagram, the quadrants are indexed spatially: 0 for NW, 1 for SW, 2 for SE, and 3 for NE. Using the spatial indexing method and the hierarchical quad tree structure, the gray cells can be coded as 02, 032, and so on. See text for more explanation.

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• Data compression refers to the reduction of data volume. • A variety of techniques are available for image compression.

• Compression techniques can be lossless or lossy.
• The wavelet transform, the latest technology for image compression, treats an image as a wave and progressively decomposes the wave into simpler wavelets.
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Figure 5.11 The Haar wavelet and the wavelet transform. (a) Three Haar wavelets at three scales (resolutions). (b) A simple example of the wavelet transform.
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• The conversion of vector data to raster data is called rasterization,
• The conversion of raster data to vector data is called vectorization.

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Figure 5.12 On the left is an example of conversion from vector to raster data, or rasterization. On the right is an example of conversion from raster to vector data, or vectorization.

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Landsat 7 http://landsat7.usgs.gov/ Terra / ASTER http://terra.nasa.gov/About/ AVHRR http://edc.usgs.gov/products/satellite/avhrr.html SPOT http://www.spot.com/ India’s space program http://www.isro.org/ Japan’s space program http://www.jaxa.jp/index_e.html Space Imaging http://www.spaceimaging.com/ QuickBird http://www.digitalglobe.com/ Intermap Technologies http://www.intermaptechnologies.com/

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ETOPO5 http://edcwww.cr.usgs.gov/glis/hyper/guide/etopo5 GTOPO30 http://lpdaac.usgs.gov/gtopo30/gtopo30.asp GLOBE http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/topo/globe.html LizardTech Inc. http://www.lizardtech.com/ ERDAS http://gis.leica-geosystems.com/ ER Mapper http://www.ermapper.com/ Feature Analyst http://www.featureanalyst.com USGS: status graphics for DEMs, DRGs, and DOQs http://statgraph.cr.usgs.gov/viewer.htm Geospatial One-stop http://www.geo-one-stop.gov/ Massachusetts GIS http://www.state.ma.us/mgis/mrsid.htm
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