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# Problem Solving – Basic 7QC Tools

What are 7 QC Tools ?
QC tools are the means for Colleting data , analyzing data , identifying root causes and measuring the results.
Tools are used to identify , analyze and resolve Problems

2

Problem Solving Tools

1. Simple Tools for Problem Analysis
1 Why -Why Analysis ( For Corrective action) 2 What If Analysis ( For Potential Problems)

2 Simple 7 QC Tools (Statistical Tools)
• • • • • • • Check Sheets Pareto Analysis Graph / Flowcharts Cause & Effect Diagram Histograms Scatter Plots Control Charts

Problem Solving Tools

What is a “Problem “?
“Problem is an undesirable event” or ..

Any Gap between what is expected and what is obtained , can be called as a Problem, and any effort to reduce this gap can be called as
“Problem Solving

Expected

Ideal situation / Objective

(Gap ?) A Problem!

Present Level
Obtained

What is PROBLEM ?
Example : Objective of machining Throttle body Boring operation – Bore Dia 40 + 0.025 mm
- Actual – 39.992 mm

Objective – 40+0.025mm
Gap = 0.008 mm Actual = 39.992 mm

Problem Solving Tools
Four types of Problems

Problem Solving Tools

Why - of Problem Solving Tools Library Why analysis - An Example
Purpose : It is the simple tool used by the team /observer to find out the cause of the problem/Accident/ Breakdown at the Workplace.
Many times, the root cause of the problem can be identified by asking Why 5 times and the repetition of such problems can be prevented by taking countermeasure immediately.

Problem Solving Tools

Why - of Problem Solving Tools Library Why analysis - An Example
Water Dripping in Substation 1 WHY ? Water accumulated at the roof WHY ? Outlet drain chocked WHY ? Atmospheric dust & dirt WHY ? Periodic cleaning of drain not done

Action

Proper scheduled procedure for roof cleaning is to be prepared

Problem Solving Tools

What-If Problem Library ofAnalysis Solving Tools
Purpose : It is the simple Pro active tool used by the team / observer, to identify problems before hand and take appropriate counter measures to prevent such problems .

Problem Solving Tools

What-If Problem An Example Library ofAnalysis -Solving Tools
Area : Team :
SL. What If Results

Equipment :Compressor

Countermeasures

1. There is no Water in the Radiator of an Automobile ? And it is not noticed.

The Engine heats up and Piston may get seized.

• Inspect the Temperature of outlet water . • Provide the temp. Indictor for the driver

 Check Sheets

What are the Basic Seven QC Tools ?

 Pareto Analysis  Graph / Flowcharts

 Cause & Effect Diagram
 Histograms  Scatter Plots

 Control Charts

What is Check sheet :
A Check sheet is a paper form on which items to be checked have been printed. Purpose : To collect the data

What is Check sheet :
• Shown a check sheet of molded Component
Defective Item check sheet
Part Name: Part No. Total No. inspected Manifold B E178012 780 Date: Lot No. Inspector Name 29/01/2011 Y129 Ahbay

Sr No. 1 2 3 4

Check Point Flow Mark Crack Flashes Shrinkage

Standard Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Total Defects Total Rejects

Defect (Nos.) 10 4 9 17 40 30

What is Check sheet :
• Shown a check sheet of molded Component
Defective Item check sheet
Part Name: Part No. Total No. inspected Manifold B E178012 780 Date: Lot No. Inspector Name 29/01/2011 Y129 Ahbay

Sr No. 1 2 3 4

Check Point Flow Mark Crack Flashes Shrinkage

Standard Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Not allowed Total Defects Total Rejects

Defect (Nos.) 10 4 9 17 40 30

What is Check sheet :
• Another example
Daily Assy . Check Sheet
Part Name: Part No. Total No. inspected Throttle Body assy. 13400 M 67LA0 240 Date: Lot No. Checking Freq. 29/01/2011 C1114 1 / 240

Sr No. 1 2 3 4

Check Point Air leak Water leak TPS output ID setting

Standard 6.4 Kpa max 68 Pa max 800±15 mV 61.3~72.5 Kpa Checked by

Observation 0.2 18 802 66.4 Yoginder

Purpose of Check Sheet
 Variation in the Quality Characteristics of a Process  Applicable for Histogram , Control Chart.  Difference between Groups / Machines  Applicable for Pareto Diagram.  Relation between two characteristics  Applicable for Scatter Diagram

PARETO DIAGRAM
 Pareto is combination of Column & Line graph.

 Purpose : To prioritize major contributing problem

from others which is less contributing.

PARETO DIAGRAM
Invented by Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) Italian economist. - 20 % of the population has 80 % of wealth

Juran – 20 % of quality problem caused 80 % of the dollar loss.

PRINCIPLE OF PARETO
80-20 Principle
 80 % improvement can be achieved by working on

20 % of the causes.

PARETO DIAGRAM
Monthly Rejection Data
S. No. Type of Defect No. of defects
150 90 30 20 7 3

Cumulative % of overall of Overall Cumulative % total total
150 240 270 290 297 300 50 30 10 7 2 1 50 80 90 97 99 100

1 2 3 4 5 6

Axial Torque Air Leak Left side Clearance Th. Body tight Blow hole Dent

Total

300

-

100

-

PARETO DIAGRAM
300
90

100 97
99

100

90 80 70

250

80

200 50

60 50

150 150 100

40
30

90
20

50
10

30 0 Axial Torque Air Leak Left side Clearance

20 Th. Body tight

7 Blow hole

3

0 Dent

PARETO DIAGRAM
 80 % of rejection can be reduced on taking action on

Axial torque & Air Leak.

What is defective :  A unit that contains at least one defect.
What is defect : Output of a process that does not meet a defined specification.

FLOW CHARTS / GRAPHS
Flow Charts:  A Tool that graphically represents the steps of a process
 Purpose :- In which process that Problem occurred

GRAPHS
It is pictorial view of data presentation Purpose : Instance Information
Type of Graph.  Line Graph  Bar Graph  Pie Chart  Radar Chart

LINE GRAPH
It is used to monitor the trend of process.
12.015 12.014 12.012

12.009 12.008 12.007 12.006

12.009 12.007

12.005
12.003 12.001 12 12.01.11 13.01.11 14.01.11 15.01.11 16.01.11 17.01.11 18.01.11

BAR GRAPH
It is used to compare with other.
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 200 300 700

100 0
Th. Body Assy. Carburator

50

Machining

PIM

PIE CHART
It is used to show share/contribution

14

10

Congress BJP 52 24 JDU

BSP

It is used to total sharp image as a composite graph

CAUSE & EFFECT DIAGRAM
 It shows the relationship between problem & its

possible cause

 Developed by Kaoru Ishikawa (1953)  Also known as … o Fishbone Diagram o Ishikawa Diagram

METHODOLOGY
Step 1: Identify All Possible causes

Step 2: Identify Potentional / Suspect causes

Step 3: Validate the all Potential cause

Step 4: Root Cause

CAUSE & EFFECT
Cause are divided into four major sources:
 MAN  MATERIAL  METHOD  MACHINE

EFFECT- OUTCOME OF CAUSES

STEP 1: IDENTIFY PROBABLE CAUSES

MAN

MATERIAL

EFFECT

METHOD

MACHINE

STEP 2: IDETIFY THE POTENETIONAL CAUSE

MAN

MATERIAL

EFFECT

METHOD

MACHINE

STEP 3 : VADILATE THE CAUSE

Sr. No

Potentional Cause

Validation Conclusion

STEP 4 : ROOT CAUSE
Why-Why Analysis
Why 1 Why bracket welding broken Because it was not welded properly

Why 2

Why not welded properly

Because welding jig was loose

Why 3

Why welding jig was loose

Because Welding jig worn

Why 4

Why Welding jig worn

Welding Jig life not defined.

Why 5

STEP 4 : ROOT CAUSE
Why-Why analysis of two type:
For Occurrence : Why defect generated in process

For Outflow: Why defect pass to customer.

Histograms
PLOTTING THE SHAPE OF A

DISTRIBUTION COMPARING THE DISTRIBUTION WITH SPECIFICATIONS USEFUL FOR QUALITY, COST AND DELIVERY IMPROVEMENT USEFUL FOR PROCESS CONTROL

Histograms
 Histogram
USL

LSL Frequ ency

Diameter

Constructing a Histogram
 Use range to estimate beginning and end
 Calculate the width of each column by dividing the

range by the number of columns

Range
= Width

# of Columns

SCATTER DIAGRAM
A graphical technique to shows the dependency of two variables / factor
For example : what extent surface finish of machined part varied by changing the speed of lathe.

SCATTER DIAGRAM
Data collect for speed & Surface finish
Speed of lathe (RPM)
700 Surface finish (Ra) 3.3 3.0

Cause

800

900
1000 1100 1200

2.7
2.4 2.1 1.8

Effect

1300
1400 1500

1.5
1.2 0.9

SCATTER DIAGRAM
Surface finish (Ra)
3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

Output / Effect

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800

Causes

RULE FOR SCATTER DIAGRAM
There should be minimum 30 readings N=30 to check dependency.
Positive Scatter Diagram:
21

18

15 30 40 50 60 70

Negative Scatter Diagram:

21 20 19 18 17 16 15 30 40 50 60

SCATTER DIAGRAM
Speed of car Km/Hr
30 35

Mileage Km/Ltr
15 16

40
45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95

17
18 19 20 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14

SCATTER DIAGRAM
22
21 20 19 18 17 16 15 16 18 20 20 19 18 17 16 15

14

14

12 20 40 60 80 100

CONTROL CHARTS
Control charts is used to detect the abnormal trends with the help of line graphs.
Invented by Dr. W.A. Shewhart

CONTROL CHARTS
Variable Chart :a)Average & Range Chart b)Median & Range Chart
Attribute Chart : a)P & np Chart b)c & u Chart

CONTROL CHARTS
X bar Chart : It shows the centering of the process.
R bar Chart : It shows the variation between the subgroup size.

CONTROL CHARTS
Diameter of Shaft :- 23±0.2 No. of Subgroup (N)= 10 Subgroup size = 5

CONTROL CHARTS
X =(X1+X2+X3+X4+…….+X10)/N R=(R1+R2+R3+R4+……..+R10)/N Control Limit – Xbar UCLx= X + A2 R = LCLx= X - A2 R Control Limit – R bar UCLr= D4 R LCLr= D3 R Where D4,D3 & A2 are constant

Application of QC tools in Problem Solving
Graphs / Flow Charts Identification of problem Defining the problem Record of facts Detecting causes of problem Develop Improvement method ( Solution ) Implementation Evaluation of result Process control ( Standardization ) Check sheet Pareto Diagra m Cause & Effect Diagram Histogr am Scatter Diagram Control Chart

Relation :Strong Normal

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Thank You !!!