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Hand/kick starting Electrical starting Compressed air starting Auxiliary petrol starting Hot bulb ignition starting Special

cartridge starting

Employ for two stroke engine or for small capacity, single cylinder,four stroke petrol and diesel engines of low compression ratio.

This system used for small capacity petrol engine and diesel engine both for automobile and static engines.

Battery provides the current to turn the starter motor.

Fuse protects the circuit.


Ignition switch closes the circuit. Relay uses small amount of current to control large amount.

Solenoid does the same thing as relay, but performs mechanical operation. It is an electromagnetic switch.
Starter motor engages pinion gear to ring gear (mounted on flywheel, Or torque converter).

Starting system uses battery power and an electric DC motor to turn engine crankshaft for engine starting. Changes electrical energy to mechanical. Provides gear reduction/torque multiplication (16:1 to 20:1). When the ignition key is turned on the current flows through the solenoid coil. This closes the contacts, connecting battery to the starter motor.

Starter Armature consists of the armature shaft, armature core, commutator and armature windings.

Armature must produce high torque and high speeds.

Field winding is a stationary insulated wire wrapped in a circular shape. It creates a strong magnetic field around the motor armature.

Pinion Gear is attached to the starter drive and when starting the vehicle the pinion gear engages with flywheel or ring gear. It is moved by the YOKE.

Overrunning Clutch Starter

Locks it in one direction and unlocks it in another. It allows the pinion gear to run free when engine begins to run.

Starting Solenoid
Is a high current relay (controlled by low current) Works as an electromagnet switch

If faulty it will simply make a clicking sound when one is attempting to start the vehicle.

Advantage 1.Air being gas,it can be easily stored. 2.Air is available in abundance from atmosphere and it behaves in similar manner as the expansion of combution gases during expansion stroke. 3.System is easy to install.

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Hand operated compressor for small units. Compressor driven by engine itself. Separatoly driven compressor

Such a system is used for single cylinder small capacity CI engine. The engine cylinder it self acts as compressor and the compressed air stored in receiver until required for readmission in the cylinder while starting. The receiver is filled with compressed air during the compression stroke of cylinder.

The starting and charging box consist of G and H valve communicating with cylinder and receiver resp. Starting lever E actuates the valves which is pivoted at F,with the lever rotation shown,fuel supply to the cylinder is cut off,the engine runs on the flywheel momentum either provided by hand cranking

or momentum of flywheel just after stopping the engine.The valve G is opened & H is still on its seating.As soon as the pressure in the cylinder exceeds the receiver pressure,the valve H is lifted and the air will pass into the receiver.when pressure in the cylinder falls below receive pressure,non-return valve H will be closed the process of air filling is repeated several times until the desired receiver pressure attained.

While starting the engine both valve G & H are open and the air flows from receiver to cylinder. Since the hand operated valve needs the skill of the operator for their opening & closing at correct timing,the cam operated valves are used instead of hand operated valves.

In case of multi-cylinder compression ignition engine the fuel supply to all cylinder are cut of escape for one-cylinder.The cylinder whose fuel supply is cut off are used for compressing the air driven by other cylinder.When engine is to be restarted,the compressed air receiver is used.

This system is used for large capacity static diesel engines.In this system a separate compressor is used for filling the compressed air in the receiver for starting purpose.The compressor are electrical driven.

Instead of using a motor &battery as in electric starting, a small capacity petrol engine is used to crank the diesel engine with the help of over running clutch drive. The petrol engine is coupled with diesel engines tgh reduction gear. The petrol engine usually started by cranking,when the diesel engine picks up adequate speed and it starts firing.

This system is used in oil engine for their starting purpose.A blow lamp or an elctrical heater is used to heat the hot bulb or uncoold part of cylinder untill the spot is hot enough to ignite the oil vapour.the heating system is removed one the ignition of fuel occurs in the cylinder

The system consist o f separate devices the breech & the proper starter , in a breech is ignited by electric current to produce high pressure combustion gases. This gases are admitted to the cylinder by means of the pipe an arrangement is provided to connect the starter with the engine. when the engine start firing .The gases are exhausted through a valve and the starter is cut-off from the cylinder.