# Linear Vs.

LINEAR Straight Line First Degree Eq.  (Exponent is 1) ax +by +c = 0 y = mx1 + b   QUADRATIC Parabola or “U” Shaped Second Degree Equation (Exponent is 2) f(x) = ax2 +bx +c = 0

Review of a Linear Function
Y 77 A Dog’s Human’s Equivalent 35 Age 21 (0,0) • • (11,77) • (5,35) (3,21) X y = 7x

3    5    11 A Dog’s Actual Age

No more lines!! No more lines!!

Big Picture
Lines are great, but not every numerical relationship is linear… One of the most common non-linear shapes in nature is the parabola Here are some “real life” parabolas caught in the wild!!

This slice of a cone

A bouncing ball

The path of a Tiddlywink

Rotated (swirled) liquids

A stream of high pressure water

This suspension bridge

A fastball

They are all Parabolas
Parabolas can look very different… But they are all similar —they have exactly the same shape, just different sizes

A parabola is defined by a “quadratic equation” General form of a quadratic equation is:

y = ax + bx + c
2
Examples: y= 3x2-5x+2 y=x2+7 a = 3, b = -5, c = 2 a = +1, b = 0, c = 7

Standard form of a quadratic equation is: a = how wide or narrow 2 y = a(x – p) - q p = going left or right
q = going up or down

y = x2 This graph opens upwards

y = x2

y = -x2

This graph opens downwards

y = x2

y = x2 y = 3x2

y = x2 y = 3x2 y = ¼ x2

Graphing Translations and Transformations

Definitions A translation is essentially a shifting or sliding of the graph (up, down, left, right). A transformation is essentially a stretching or compressing of the graph.

Translations

y = x2

Graph the following on your graphic calculator.  y = x2  y = x2 + 2  y = x2 - 2

What do you notice???

Graph the following on your graphic calculator.  y = (x)2  y = (x + 2)2  y = (x – 3)2

What do you notice???

Graph the following on your graphic calculator.

 y = x2  y = - x2

What do you notice???

Transformations

Did you know that…

Graph the following on your graphic calculator.  y = x2  y = 2x2  y = 4x2

What do you notice???

Graph the following on your graphic calculator.  y = x2  y = 1 x2 2  y = 1 x2 4

What do you notice???

Translations + transformations

Graph the following on graph paper.  y = x2  y = 2x2 - 3  y = -(x - 5)2 + 1

What do you notice???

http://www.fi.uu.nl/toepassingen/00167/toep

How to graph a parabola transformation precisely
y = x2

1–1 1–3 1–5

y = 2x2

1 – 1X 2 = 2 1 – 3X 2 = 6 1 – 5 X 2 = 10

y = 1/2x2

1 – 1 X 1/2 = 1/2 1 – 3 X 1/2 = 3/2 1 – 5 X 1/2 = 5/2

Mapping Notation

What really happens to the values on a graph!
Original (x, y) (x, y) (x, y) / After translation and/or transformation / (x, 3y) / (x, y + 5) / (x – 4, y)

First of all!
This year your quadratic equation will be presented most of the time in the standard form: y = a(x – p)2 + q If it is not in this format rearrange it so it is…

Example:

1 2 ( y + 2) = ( x + 3) 3
2

− 5 y = ( x − 1)

A) − 2( y − 3) = ( x + 7) 2

1 y = − ( x + 7) 2 + 3 2
B) 1 2 ( y + 2) = ( x − 4) 3

y = 3( x − 4) − 2

Back to mapping! How is it done?
Step 1: Your equation is in the form y = a(x - p)2 + q Step 2: Write the ordered pair that represent the simplest graph form ( y = x2 ).
(x, y)

Step 3: Make an arrow
(x, y)

Step 4: Make another ordered pair (leaving some space)
(x, y) (x , y )

Step 5: Add the information of your equation in the second ordered pair
(x, y) (x – p, ay + q)

Back to mapping! How is it done?
Step 1: Your equation is in the form y = a(x - p)2 + q Step 2: Write the ordered pair that represent the simplest graph form ( y = x2 ).
(x, y)

Examples: A) y = a(x – p)2 + q y = 2(x – 4)2

Mapping:
(x, y) (x, y) (x –(-4), 2y + 0) (x + 4, 2y)

Step 3: Make an arrow
(x, y)

Step 4: Make another ordered pair with some free spaces
(x, y) (x , y )

B) y = -1/2(x + 1)2 -3

Mapping:
(x, y) (x, y) (x –(1), -1/2y + (-3)) (x - 1, -1/2y - 3)

Step 5: Add the information of your equation in the second ordered pair
(x, y) (x – p, ay + q)

C) y = (x + 2)2 + 3

Mapping:
(x, y) (x, y) (x –(+2), y + (3)) (x - 2, y + 3)

Your turn! Find the Mapping Notation!
y = -5(x + 5)2 + 4 -y = 2x2 y = -2x2 y = x2 – 7 y = (x + 1)2 y = -1/2(x - 2)2 – 3 y = x2 y = -x2 (x, y) (x, y) (x, y) (x, y) (x, y) (x, y) (x, y) (x – 5, -5y + 4) (x, -2y) (x, y – 7) (x - 1, y) (x + 2, -1/2y – 3) (x, y) (x, -y)

Mapping Notation from a graph

(x, y) (x - 2, y + 2)

(x, y) (x - 1, y + 3)

(x, y) (x, 2y -2)

1–1 1–3 1–5

1–2 to 1 – 6 1 – 10

(x, y) (x - 2, 1/2y)

1–1 1–3 1–5

1 – 1/2 to 1 – 3/2 1 – 5/2

Vertex
The vertex is the point where the parabola turns. It is either the highest (maximum) or lowest (minimum) point in the graph.

Vertex

(-2, 2) Minimum

Vertex

(1, 3) Maximum

Vertex

(0, -2) Minimum

Vertex

(2, 0) Minimum

Symmetry
Parabolas are symmetrical—they are like a mirrored image and can be folded in half The line of symmetry is a vertical line containing the vertex Vertical lines always have the form x = ___

Axis of Symmetry
The axis of symmetry is the line that divides the parabola in half.

The axis of symmetry is x=2

Finding the Axis of Symmetry
Given a quadratic equation in ax +bx+c form, the axis of symmetry is:
x
2 2

b 2a

Example: y=2x -8x+7
b (8) 8    2 so x  2 is the Axis of Symmetry 2a 2(2) 4

Example
x-coord +3 to line of symmetr y X-coord +3 more to reflection image

Given this parabola whose line of symmetry is x = 3 Find the reflection image of (0, 9) (0+3+3, 9) (6, 9)

Finding Vertex
To find the vertex take the x value of the axis of symmetry and plug it back into the equation to get a y-value. The (x, y) point you get is the vertex.

Example
y=2x -8x+7 – axis of symmetry is x=2 y=2(2) -8(2)+7 y=8-16+7 y= -1 Vertex = (2, -1)
2 2

Find the Axis of Symmetry & Vertex
y=2x2-8x+9 y=x2-4x-3 y=3x2-18x+5 y=5x2+40x+9

How to graph a quadratic function
The graph of a quadratic function is a parabola.

How to graph a quadratic function
If f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c, the significance of the leading coefficient a /= 0 is the following: If a>0 then the parabola opens upward, if a<0 then the parabola opens downward.

How to graph a quadratic function
An important piece of information is to figure out where the vertex of the parabola. The vertex of the parabola is either its highest or lowest point (depending on whether a<0 or a>0, respectively.) Being a point on the plane, the vertex has two coordinates, x and y.

How to graph a quadratic function
Being a point on the plane, the vertex has two coordinates, x and y. The abscissa for the vertex is obtained by the formula x = -(b/2a) (trust me about this, you will see why later.)

How to graph a quadratic function
Being a point on the plane, the vertex has two coordinates, x and y. The abscissa for the vertex is obtained by the formula x = -(b/2a) (trust me about this, you will see why later.) You can obtain the ordinate for the vertex by plugging the x-value above into the function f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c.

For example…
Let f(x) = 3x^2 – 6x + 2 The abscissa for the vertex is obtained by the formula x = -(b/2a). So, x = -(-6/6) = 1.

For example…
Let f(x) = 3x^2 – 6x + 2 The abscissa for the vertex is obtained by the formula x = -(b/2a). So, x = -(-6/6) = 1. You can obtain the ordinate for the vertex by plugging the x-value above into the function f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c. Therefore, y = f(1) = 3(1)^2 – 6(1) + 2 = -1 The vertex is the point (1,-1).

The vertex relates to minimization and maximization problems
Let us look at problem 7, page 68.

Terminology The solutions to the equation ax2+bx+c=0 are also called: the x intercepts of y= ax2+bx+c the roots of ax2+bx+c=0 A quadratic equation can be solved by: 1) Factoring (sometimes) (Chapter 7) 2) Completing the square (Chapter 5) 3) Quadratic formula (Chapter 5)

Vertex Form 2 y − k = a ( x − h)
Vertex is (h,k)
Example: y+3=2(x-4)2
Vertex is (4,-3)

Complete the Square
A perfect square binomial can be written as

(a + = + + b) a 2ab b
2 2 2

Or with one variable and one constant as

(x + = + + a) x 2ax a
2 2

2

Any quadratic equation with one squared variable can be changed to perfect square format

Complete the Square a=1 y = 2 + − x 6x 1
Take

square it.

1 2

of the coefficient on the linear term and
2   6 2 9   =3 =   2

Add (or subtract) enough from both sides of the equation to make the constant term equal to 9 on the right hand side 2

y +10 = x +6x −1+10 y +10 = x +6x +9
2

By completing the square you have changed from general form to vertex form

y +10 =(x +3)

2

Complete the Square a≠1

2x − 6x + 3 = 0
2 2 2

2(x − 3x + 1.5) = 0 2(x − 3x + 2.25) = 1.5 (x + 1.5) = 1.5 = 2
2 3 4

Divide by a
Complete the Square

Write as a perfect square Square root both sides

x + 1.5 = ± x = 1.5 ±
3 2

3 2

or

3± 3 2

Solve for x and simplify

Solve by Completing the Square
Any Quadratic equation can be solved by completing the square

x +10x − 2 = 0
2

10  2   = (5) = 25 2
(x + 5) = 27
2

2

Add 27 to both sides of the equation to complete the square Write as a perfect square

x 2 +10x + 25 = 27 x + 5 = ± 27 x = −5 ± 3 3

Take square root of both sides Solve for x

Quadratic formula by complete 2 the square 0 = ax + bx + c
−c a

=x +bx a
2 c a 2 b a

Divide by a

b2 (2a )2

− = x + x+ = (x +
b 2 2a b 2a

b2 (2a )2

Complete the square

b 2 − 4 ac 4a2

)

Write as a perfect square

±
−b 2a

b 2 − 4 ac 4a2

= (x + =x

)

Square root both sides

±

b 2 − 4 ac 2a

Subtract from both sides Add Fractions

− b ± b 2 − 4 ac 2a

=x

The Discriminant
When does this equation yield 2 real number solutions? When b2-4ac is positive When does it yield 2 rational number solutions? When b2-4ac is a perfect square When does it yield only one solution? When b2-4ac is 0 When does it yield no real number solutions? When b2-4ac is negative

− ± b 2 −4ac b x= 2a

b2-4ac is called the discriminant, because it
discriminates between the types of possible solutions.

Vertex of a parabola

The vertex is the point where the parabola “turns” The vertex is the only point on the parabola with no symmetric point For a y= parabola, the vertex is the lowest (a positve) or highest (a negative) point.

Use the Quadratic Formula to find the vertex of a parabola At the y value of the vertex, how many x values are there? When does the quadratic formula give you only one value for x? If − ± b 2 −4ac and b b 2 − = then 4ac 0

x=

x=

−b 2a

2a

is the x coordinate of the vertex.

What is the y coordinate of the vertex?

x + = 5x 6
2

x + 5x = 6
2 2

x + 5x − 6 = 0 (x + 6)(x −1) = 0 x + 6 = 0   &   x −1 = 0 x = −6                 x = +1

1. 2. 3. 4.

Set Eq = 0  Factor  Set Each Factor = 0 Check Answers by  Putting into Original Eq.

Solutions are Roots Where the graph crosses the xaxis

• X

Solutions are Roots Some have 2 Solutions

• X

Solutions are Roots Some have 1 Solutions

X

Solutions are Roots Some have 0 Solutions

X

How many solutions to this quadratic function?

X

How many solutions to this quadratic function?

X

How many solutions to this quadratic function?

X

Y

y=f(x)=x2

• (0,0)

• X

ROO TS ar e w her e t he graph cr oss es t he x-axis

x + x −2 =0 (x +2)(x −1) =0 x =−2 or  +1
2

Y

­3     ­2     ­1

1     2     3

X

ROOTS are SOLUTIONS

Translations
  

Translations are “slides” Described by a length and direction Eg. translate the following shape 6 units left, and  6 units down…

Translations

6 units left…

Translations
 

6 units left… 6 units down

Translations
  

6 units left… 6 units down Do the same translation for  each key point

Translations

Another example: Translate this shape 5 units  left, and 3 units up

Translations
 

5 left and 3 up One point

Translations
 

5 left and 3 up Two Points

Translations
 

5 left and 3 up 3 Points

Translations
 

5 left and 3 up All Points (Connect)

Translations
 

Mapping Notation (x,y)  (x+2,y- 4)

Translations
  

Mapping Notation (x,y)  (x+2,y- 4) This means “right 2”, “down 4”

Translations
  

Mapping Notation (x,y)  (x+2,y- 4) This means “right 2”, “down 4” All 4 key points

Translations
  

 

Mapping Notation (x,y)  (x+2,y- 4) This means “right 2”, “down 4” All 4 key points Connect

Translations
   

Show the following translations: (x,y)  (x+2, y+6) Up 4, left 3 [-4,-1] (ordered pair notation)

Translations
   

Show the following translations: (x,y)  (x+2, y+6) Up 4, left 3 [-4,-1] (ordered pair notation)

Translations
   

Show the following translations: (x,y)  (x+2, y+6) Up 4, left 3 [-4,-1] (ordered pair notation)

Translations
   

Show the following translations: (x,y)  (x+2, y+6) Up 4, left 3 [-4,-1] (ordered pair notation)

T he V er te x

The highest or lowest point of a parabola is its vertex,  which is on the axis of symmetry.

y  ax 2  bx  c If a>0 in                        , then the parabola opens  upward, and the vertex is the minimum                  point on the parabola.
If a<0, then the parabola opens downward, and the  vertex is the maximum point.
vertex (maximum)

vertex (minimum)