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Define the Population Identify Sampling Frame Specify the Sampling Unit Specify sample Design Determine sample size Select the sample units Collect data from the designated sample units
Elements Sampling Units Extent Time
Types of Sample Designs
• Probability • Non-Probability Sampling
Random Sampling * Lottery Method and Use of random numbers With Replacement and without Replacement • Simple random Sampling • Systematic random Sampling Sampling fraction :N/n • Stratified Random Sampling *Divide the population into mutually exclusive and mutually exhaustive strata or sub-groups. Age, Gender, Occupation Draw a table ?
Major Issues in Stratification
Bases of Stratification Variables to be considered? Number Of Strata For a single overall estimate :Six Strata Sample sizes within strata. Proportionate Stratified Sample and Disproportionate Stratified Sampling
Advantages of Sampling
Cost Effective Less Time Consuming Less man-power required Specific information is collected In Depth analysis can be done
Sampling give rise to errors due to bias and methods. If the errors are too large the results of the sample can’t be generalized/applied to the population.
• • • • • • • Cluster Sampling: Selecting groups Multi-stage Sampling: State, City, Individual Area Sampling: Geographical Multi-Phase Sampling: Generic, Specific Replicated Sampling: n Equal size Groups Sequential Sampling: n1>n2>n3 Master Samples: n samples from a master frame
• Quota Sampling: Conditions or controls Independent controls, inter-related controls • Judgments Sampling: Purposive Sampling, small specific samples by expert • Convenience Sampling: Accidental Sampling suitable for exploratory research • Snowball Sampling: One sample to another (telecalling)
Unit 2 Part Two
*Measurement and Scaling Techniques *Attitude Scales
Dictionary: “Settled behavior, As indicating opinion’. Thurstone: “ The sum total of man’s inclinations and feelings, prjudice or bias, preconceived notions, ideas, fears, threats, and convictions about any specific topic”. “the state of mind of the individual towards a value” “Acquired tendencies to act in specific ways towards objects/Situations.
Components of attitude
Cognitive Component: The respondent is aware of and knows about a given object or phenomenon. Affective Component: The respondent’s liking and preference. Behavioral Component: The respondent’s intention to buy and his actual purchase behavior. Pattern of purchase and quantum of purchase.
Characteristics Of Measurement Scale
Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Scale Ratio Scale
• • • • • • • • • • Paired Comparison Scale Thurstone Scale Summated Ratings Scale Scalogram Analysis Intensity Function Semantic Differential Stapel Scale Itemized Rating Scale Rank Order Scale Constant Sum Scale