Tujuan

1. Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan ancaman dalam persaingan industri 2. Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan konsep persaingan industri 3. Mahasiswa mampu menjelaskan strategi bersaing perusahaan berdasarkan perannya di pasar sasaran

Induce your competitors not to invest in those products, markets and services where you expect to invest the most … that is the fundamental rule of strategy.
Bruce Henderson, Founder of BCG

There is nothing more exhilarating than to be shot at without result.
Winston Churchill

Five Forces Determining Segment Structural Attractiveness
Potential Entrants (Threat of Mobility)

Suppliers (Supplier power)

Industry Competitors (Segment rivalry)

Buyers (Buyer power)

Substitutes (Threats of substitutes)

Analyzing Competitors
Objectives
Strategies Competitor Actions

Reaction Patterns

Strengths & Weaknesses

Industry Competition
• • • • • Number of Sellers - Degree of Differentiation Entry, Mobility, Exit barriers Cost Structure Degree of Vertical Integration Degree of Globalization

Struktur Industri
• • • • Monopoli Oligopoli Persaigan monopolistik Persaingan Murni

Barriers and Profitability
Exit barriers
Low High

Entry Barriers

Low

Low, stable returns

Low, risky returns

High

High, stable returns

High, risky returns

Strategic Groups in the Major Appliance Industry
High

Quality

Group A •Narrow line •Lower mfg. cost •Very high service •High price Group B •Full line •Low mfg. cost •Good service •Medium price
High

Group C •Moderate line •Medium mfg. cost •Medium service •Medium price Group D •Broad line •Medium mfg. cost •Low service •Low price
Low

Low

Vertical Integration

Competitor’s Expansion Plans
Markets
Individual Users Personal Computers Dell Commercial & Industrial Educational

Products

Hardware Accessories

Software

Informasi Kekuatan dan Kelemahan
1. Pangsa pasar (share of market) - Pangsa pesaing atas pasar sasaran. 2. Pangsa ingatan (share of mind) - Persentase pelanggan yang menyebut nama pesaing dalam menanggapi pertanyaan, “sebutkan perusahaan pertama di industri ini yang ada di dalam pikiran Anda.” 3. Pangsa hati (share of heart) - Persentase pelanggan yang menyebut nama pesaing dalam menangapi pertanyaan, “Sebutkan perusahaan yang produknya lebih Anda sukai untuk dibeli.”

Seleksi Pesaing
• Pesaing Kuat vs Pesaing Lemah • Pesaing Dekat vs Jauh • Pesaing yang “baik” vs “buruk”

Hypothetical Market Structure & Strategies
Market nicher Market leader Market challenger Market follower

40%
Expand Market
Defend Market Share Expand Market Share

30%
Attack leader Status quo

20%
Imitate

10%
Specialize

Optimal Market Share
Optimal market share

Profitability
0%

25%

50%

75%

100%

Market share

“Nichemanship”
• • • • • • • • • • • End-user specialist Vertical-level specialist Customer-size specialist Specific-customer specialist Geographic specialist Product or product-line specialist Product-feature specialist Job-shop specialist Quality-price specialist Service specialist Channel specialist

Balance

Customer
+ opportunities + Long-run profit + Emerging needs & groups

Competition
+ Fighter orientation + Alert + Exploit weaknesses - Reactive

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