Ship's construction and architecture. General notions.

1. Ship‟s definition 2. Classification societies 3. 4. Main dimensions Ship structure

5.

Ship construction process

6. Encoding structural areas 7. Types of vessels

1. Ship’s definition
The ship is a special construction, watertight, and able to float on the water to move in one direction would, with a steady speed with a specific purpose To be fit for purpose a ship must be able to operate safely and reliably. That a ship can safely navigate and accomplish mission for which it was built it must have certain qualities. Nautical qualities of any ship are: The ship must do all economically, safely, reliably and with the minimum size of crew.

1. Ship‟s definition 2. Classification societies 3. 4. Main dimensions Ship structure

5.

Ship construction process

6. Encoding structural areas 7. Types of vessels

2. Classification societies
Classification societies are becoming increasingly involved in the classification of naval vessels. Typically they cover the ship and ship systems , including stability, watertight integrity, structural strength, propulsion, fire safety and life saving. They do not cover the weapon systems themselves but do cover the supporting systems. A warship has to be „fit for service‟ as does any ship. The technical requirements to make them fit for service will differ, as would the requirements for a tanker and for a passenger ship. In the case of the warship the need to take punishment as a result of enemy action, including shock and blast, will lead to a more rugged design. There will be more damage scenarios to be considered with redundancy built into systems so that they are more likely to remain functional after damage.

The involvement of classification societies with naval craft has a number of advantages . It means warships will meet at least the internationally agreed safety standards to which merchant ships are subject. The navy concerned benefits from the world wide organization of surveyors to ensure equipment , materials or even complete ships are of the right quality. There are many classification societies which co-operate through the International Association of Classification Societies (IACS) (www.iacs.org.uk)

American Bureau of Shipping Bureau Veritas China Classification Society Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyd Korean Register of Shipping Lloyds Register of Shipping Nippon Kaiji Kyokai Registro Italiano Navale Russian Maritime Register of Shipping

www.eagle.org www.verislar.com www.ccs.org.cn www.dnv.com www.GermanLloyd.org www.krs.co.kr www.lr.org www.classnk.or.jp www.rina.it www.rs-head.spb.ru

1. Ship‟s definition 2. Classification societies 3. 4. Main dimensions Ship structure

5.

Ship construction process

6. Encoding structural areas 7. Types of vessels

3. Main Dimension
The hull form of a ship may be defined by a number of a dimensions and terms which are often referred to during and after building the vessel. An explanation of the principal terms is is given below. Lightweight: this is the weight of the ship it self when complety empty, with boilers topped up to working level. It is made up of steel weight, wood and outfit weight and machinery weight. After Perpendicular (AP): a perpendicular drawn to the waterline at the point where the aft side of the rudder post meets the summer load line. Where no rudder post is fitted it is taken as the centre line of the rudder stock.

Forward Perpendicular (FP): a perpendicular drawn to the waterline at the point where the foreside of the stem meets the summer load line. Length Between Perpendiculars (LBP): the length between the forward and aft perpendiculars measured along the summer load line. Amid ship: a point midway between the after and forward perpendiculars. Length Overall (LOA): length of vessel taken over all extremities. Forward the point may be on the raked stem or on a bulbous bow. Length on the waterline (LWL): is the length on the waterline, at which the ship happens to be floating, between the intersections of the bow and after end with the waterline. If not otherwise stated the summer load (or design) waterline is to be understood. Base Line: a horizontal line drawn at the top of the keel plate. All vertical moulded dimensions are measured relative to this line.

Moulded Beam: Measured at the midship section is the maximum moulded breadth of the ship. Moulded draft: measured from the base line to the summer load line at the midship section. Moulded depth: measured from the base line to the heel of the upper deck beam at the ship‟s side amidships. Extreme Beam: the maximum beam taken over all extremities. Extreme Draft: taken from the lowest point of keel to the summer load line. Draft marks represent extreme drafts. Extreme Depth: depth of vessel at ship‟s side from upper deck to lowest point of keel. Half Breadth: since a ship‟s hull is symmetrical about the longitudinal center line, often only the half beam or half breadth at any section is given.

Figure 1

Deadweight: this is the weight that a ship carries. It can be made up of oil fuel, fresh water, stores, lubricating oil, water ballast, crew and effects, cargo and passengers. Displacement: this is the weight of the volume of water that the ship displaces. Displacement is lightweight (LWL)+deadweight(DWT). The lightweight will not change much during the life of a ship and so is reasonably constant . the deadweight however will vary, depending on how much the ship is loaded. Freeboard: the vertical distance measured at the ship‟s side between the summer load line (or service draft) and the freeboard deck. The freeboard deck is normally the uppermost complete deck exposed to weather and sea which has permanent means of closing all openings, and below which all openings in the ship‟s side have watertight closing.

When all corrections have been made to the basic freeboard the figure 2 at is termed the Summer freeboard. This distance is measured down from a line denoting the top of the freeboard deck at side and a second line is painted on the side with it‟s top edge passing through the cetre of a circle, Figure 2.

Figure 2 Load line markings

To allow for different water densities and the severity of conditions likely to be met in different seasons and areas of the world, a series of extra lines are painted on the ship‟s side. Relative to the summer freeboard, for a Summer draught of T, the other freeboards are as follows: The Winter freeboard is T/48 greater. The Winter North Atlantic freeboard is 50mm greater still. The Tropical freeboard is T/48 less. The Fresh Water freeboard is /40t cm less, where  is the displacement in tones per cm immersion. The Tropical fresh water freeboard is T/48 less than the Fresh Water freeboard.

1. Ship‟s definition 2. Classification societies 3. 4. Main dimensions Ship structure

5.

Ship construction process

6. Encoding structural areas 7. Types of vessels

4. Ship Structure Definition: A ship is a large sea going vessel, or in other words, it is a structure that will float and is capable of marking ocean voyages. There are many different kinds of ships-war ships and merchant ships, large and small, fast and slow, steel and wooden, designed and built for many different purposes-but all have certain characteristics in common. Therefore, in what follows, for the sake of brevity, consideration will be given only to steel merchant steam-ships. Requirements – The ship may be considered as a large boat. Being made a steel, which is heavier than water, it must be hollow and therefore, in order to float, it must be watertight.

In order to pass safely over over the large waves of the ocean the ship must be given such a shape that it will not capsize and such strength that it will not break in two. In other words the principal requirements of all ships are: Water tightness Stability Strength When any panel and the block assemblies are complete there will be some time buffer before their erection at the building berth, building dock or within the building hall to allow for any mishaps in the production schedule.

Stowage is generally adjacent to the berth, dock or building hall and will vary in size according to the yard‟s practice, some yards storing a large number of units before transferring them to the berth or dock for erection in order to cut the berth/dock time to a minimum. For an established medium sized yard with building berth or hall having modest cranage typical erection sequences for a general cargo ship, a large double hull oil tanker, and bulk carrier are shown in Figures 3and 4.

1. Ship‟s definition 2. Classification societies 3. 4. Main dimensions Ship structure

5.

Ship construction process

6. Encoding structural areas 7. Types of vessels

5. Ship construction process • Contract Shipping: sign the contract between the ship owner and the shipbuilder • Design & Plan: design the ships using design programs such us Tribon, Autocad etc. • Pretreatment: steel surface treatment for processing. • Cutting: cut the pre-treated steel according to the drawing • Assembly: assembly the cut and processed of piece assembly, subblock assembly and block assembly • Pre-outfitting: the installation of various pipes, electrical wires and device at the internal and external parts of a block that is already assembled • Outfitting: install various ship equipment • Painting: the elimination of foreign substances generated in the connection part during loading, and the painting of the steel surface.

• Pre-erection: the enlargement of a block by gathering 2-3 blocks on which painting has already been completed around the dock. • Erection: the welding of the enlarged blocks, both automatically and manually, at the dock, thus making the form of the ship. • Launching: the floating of a ship whose form has been made throught welding, and whose painting is completed • Sea Trial: a trial at sea (of criteria such as speed, fuel consumption, etc.) as agreed in the contract. • Naming: an event to name a ship whose construction has been completed • Delivery: deliver the completed ship to the ship owner

1. Ship‟s definition 2. Classification societies 3. 4. Main dimensions Ship structure

5.

Ship construction process

6. Encoding structural areas 7. Types of vessels

6. Encoding structural areas

Code

Structural Areas
1 Engine room and after pic 2 Double Bottom 3 Other structure 4 Transverse Bulkheads

Code
6 Side-plating

Structural Areas

7 Other (frames) 8 Forepeak 9 Superstructure

5 Deck, hatch cover, hatch coaming

1. Ship‟s definition 2. Classification societies 3. 4. Main dimensions Ship structure

5.

Ship construction process

6. Encoding structural areas 7. Types of vessels

7. Types of vessels • BULK CARRIER

These ships transport break bulk or dry bulk in their holds. Examples of dry bulk are grain, ore, coal or fodder. Dry-cargo carriers often have large “hatches” that secure the hold and thus keep the cargo dry. Nowadays some dry cargo ships are specially designed for the sole purpose of transporting containers. They have a height-adjustable wheelhouse for example, which allows optimum visibility over the highly stacked containers. Dry cargo ships are extremely versatile and have numerous transportation possibilities. They are, therefore, the most common example of all inland vessels.

Types of bulk carrier Aframax An ocean-going crude oil tanker vessel of standard size between 80,000 and 119,000 dwt that is the largest crude oil tanker size in the AFRA (Average Freight Rate Assessment) tanker rate system. Capesize 80 000 up to 175000dwt An ocean-going cargo vessel that is physically too large to fit through the locks of either the Panama or Suez Canals and therefore must voyage via Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America to get to or from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, or the Cape of Good Hope at the southernmost tip of South Africa to get to and from the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Capesize vessels generally serve deep water terminals handling raw materials, such as iron ore and coal.

Handymax A small bulk or oil tanker vessel of 30,001 to 50,000 dwt that is a larger version of the popular Handysize vessel. Handysize A small bulk or oil tanker vessel that is suited to tie up at a T2 type pier. These vessels are a maximum of 10,000 to 30,000 dwt. These vessels are more maneuverable and have shallower draft than larger vessels and therefore make up the majority of the world's ocean-going cargo fleet. Panamax An ocean-going cargo vessel of the maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Panama Canal, which are 1000ft long by 110ft wide and 85ft deep. These vessels are typically of 50,000 to 80,000 dwt, 965ft (290m) in length; 106ft. (32.3m) beam; and 39.5ft (12.04m) draft.

Suezmax An ocean-going cargo vessel of the maximum size possible to pass through the locks of the Suez Canal in Egypt. This standard has evolved over time. Prior to 1967, a Suezmax was a maximum of 80,000 dwt. The canal was closed between 1967 and 1975 because of the Israel-Arab conflict. Upon reopening in 1975, after many modifications to the locks and canal itself, the maximum was increased to 150,000 dwt.

CONTAINER SHIP

This ship is faster than other ships, since it handles cargo that requires prompt transportation. Container ships are categorized as either 20feet(TEU: Twenty foot Equivalent Unit) or 40-feet (FEU: forty foot Equivalenr Unit) ships.

Container Ship Size Categories
Name Capacity (TEU)[17] Length
1,200 ft (366 m) and longer

Beam
160.7 ft (49 m) and wider

Draft
49.9 ft (15.2 m) and deeper

Example
With a length of 397 m, a width of 56 m, draft of 15.5 m, and a capacity of over 15,000 TEU, ships of the Emma Maersk class are well over the limits of the New Panamax class.[23] (Photo: The 15,000 TEU MV Edith Maersk.) With a beam of 43 m, ships of the COSCO Guangzhou class are much too big to fit through the Panama Canal's old locks, but could easily fit through the new expansion. (Photo: The 9,500 TEU MV COSCO Guangzhou pierside in Hamburg. ) Ships of the Bay-class are at the upper limit of the Panamax class, with an overall length of 292.15 m, beam of 32.2m, and maximum depth of 13.3 m.[24] (Photo: The 4,224 TEU MV Providence Bay passing through the Panama Canal.)

Ultra Large 14,501 and higher Container Vessel (ULCV)

New panamax Post panamax

10,000–14,500 5,101–10,000

1,200 ft (366 m)

160.7 ft (49 m)

49.9 ft (15.2 m)

Panamax

3,001 – 5,100

965 ft (294.13 m)

106 ft (32.31 m)

39.5 ft (12.04 m)

Feedermax Feeder Small feeder

2,001 – 3,000 1,001 – 2,000 Up to 1,000

Container ships under 3,000 TEU are typically called feeders, and are most likely to have cargo cranes. (Photo: The 384 TEU MV TransAtlantic at anchor.[25])

TANK VESSELS

Certainly 80% of all hazardous („wet‟) materials is transported by water via tank vessels. This is much safer than by train or lorry, because these types of transport often have to travel through urban areas in order to reach their destination. Moreover, tank vessels are often fitted with double hulls and have to meet stringent requirements. Double hulls are tested in practice for the purpose of preventing cargo leakage in the event of a collision. Tank vessels can carry various types of cargo such as liquids, gases and powder-form products. There are four types of tank ships: type N (normal), type C (chemical), type G (gas) and powder tankers. • Type Normal (N) These are the traditional tank vessels. They mostly transport the diesel and petrol that we use to run our cars but they also transport other petroleum distillates or edible oils. In the latter case, the tanks are then made of stainless steel.

• Type Chemical (C) These tankers have storage tanks made of stainless steel for carrying heavy chemicals such as phenol and hydrochloric acid etc. These are also the type of tankers with the highest safety standards. Some tankers have separate cargo tanks that are coated with a special protective layer. These vessels mostly carry benzene, cyclohexane and naphtha. They have double hulls to prevent the cargo from leaking in case of a collision. • Type Gas (G) These vessels are often fabricated with triple hulls. In addition to the double hulls on chemical tankers, these ships are equipped with separate circular tanks. Circular tanks are the strongest possible construction, which is necessary because gases have the property to become liquid when transported under pressure. Gas tankers are extremely strong and are thus the safest mode of transport.

• Powder tanker These tankers can unload their cargo using pneumatic pumps (through air pressure), because many powders have the property to become liquid under a certain pressure. Many of these types of ships transport cement, but also fly ash and even Gas tanker Special vessel for transport of liquid/condensed gas. The most important cargoes are: ammonia, ethylene LNG – Liquefied non-oil natural Gas, contains mostly of methane). LPG – Liquefied Petroleum Gases (propane, butane).

PUSH AND TUG BOATS

Push boats are placed behind so-called pushed barges as a means of propulsion, because pushed barges cannot navigate independently. The push boat is actually rather like a floating engine room with full crew accommodation and a wheelhouse. A push boat hooked up to a pushed barge is known as a pushing unit. It can handle up to a maximum of 6 pushed barges, giving the pushing unit a total length of 200 metres. However, in practice only 2 or 3 barges are navigated. Practically anything can be transported in the hold of a pushed barge: bulk cargo such as ore, coal or grain, but also containers. The type of cargo partly depends on whether the pushed barge has a hatch cover. Tug boats are used for towing vessels such as barges, pontoons, dredgers, elevators and floating cranes. They also assist sea-going vessels and pushing units. Small push boats often also have a tow installation.

RO-RO SHIPS

A roll-on roll-off ship, or ro-ro ship, has a ramp which is specifically designed to take all kinds of rolling cargo on board, such as new cars and vans, lorries but also tractors or army vehicles for example.

PASSENGER SHIPS

Passenger ships are used to transport people and include hotel cruise ships, day passenger vessels (party and canal cruise companies) and ferry services. An average passenger vessel has a capacity of around 100 passengers. Typical examples are the vessels used for the well-known Rhine cruises.

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