Advanced Vehicle Technologies

Prof.Ravi Kumar Puli


Advanced Vehicle Technologies
Battery Electric Vehicles Range Extended Electric Vehicles
Plug-in Hybrids

Fuel Cell Vehicles

Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine

Advanced ICEs

Other Fuel Economy Improvements

Idle Reduction

Other technologies


Technology Adoption Roadmap

Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory


Evolution of Plug in Electric Vehicles


Plug-In Hybrid Technology (PHEV’s)
• • • Combines the propulsion capabilities of traditional combustion engine with an electric motor Can be charged with electricity and run under engine power like traditional hybrid electric vehicles PHEVs are powered by two energy sources – An energy conversion unit (such as an internal combustion engine or fuel cell) and – A motor driven by an energy storage device (usually batteries) • • Energy conversion unit can be powered by gasoline, diesel, compressed natural gas, hydrogen, or other fuels Batteries are charged by plugging into a standard 110-volt electrical outlet

• • •

Ability to be charged by the energy conversion unit when needed
PHEV’s have larger battery packs than conventional hybrid During daily driving, most of a PHEV’s power comes from the stored electricity The engine kicks on when longer trips are required

Plug-In Hybrid Technology (PHEV’s)
• Ability to plug into a standard 110-volt electric outlet (capability conventional hybrid vehicles don’t have) Eliminates “range anxiety” associated with all electric vehicles Qualifies for purchase incentives

• • • Not considered as Zero Emission vehicle Additional cost, weight and size of the battery pack Still dependent on fossil fuels

• •


Range Extended Electric Vehicle Technology
• • • • A plug-in hybrid with a small internal combustion engine or other secondary source connected to a generator to recharge the batteries and allow for extended distance driving The onboard generator is present only to recharge the batteries – i.e. does not drive the vehicles The onboard generator kicks ON when battery charge depletes and “extend the range” of the electric vehicle. The onboard generator can be anything that produces power: gasoline engine, diesel, ethanol, or even a hydrogen fuel cell


Range Extended Electric Vehicles
• • • • Efficiency of an electric drive-train Zero emission operation for the most part (~40 miles) Long driving range possible Does not depend on recharging infrastructure

• • • Are not considered true zero emissions vehicles (except for fuel cells) Complex engineering integration of the software and hardware required to make things run smoothly High initial costs compared to conventional ICE vehicles due to added parts and complexity

Chevy Volt

Fisker Karma


Battery Electric Vehicle Technology
• • • BEV’s use chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs Uses electric motors and controllers instead of internal combustion engines for propulsion Commonly used rechargeable batteries are
– Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) – Lithium ion (Li-ion) – Sodium Nickel Chloride (Zebra)

The battery pack is recharged by connecting or “plugging” it into a wall socket or other electrical source Recharge times from 0-100% SOC range from a few hours (2-3 hours) to “overnight” (8-10) recharging on 220 volt service. Driving range for most highway-capable BEVs are 100- 200 miles.

Benefits of EVs
Lower CO2 footprint; can be zero with renewable fuel source • 3-5 x more efficient, regardless of electricity source • Important enabler for energy security • Zero emission – important for cities

Cheaper to Drive

• No visits to the dealership! (oil changes, etc. – first maintenance at 50,000 km) • 2 cents per mile operating cost • Far fewer wearing parts than gasoline car • Instant torque • Unparalled driveability in all conditions • Ability to adapt to driver preferences • Enables new benefits and features (pre-heat, precool) • Charge me now, charge me later, charge me free • Earn money from Li-ion battery during use and 2nd life



Battery Electric Vehicle Technology

• • BEV’s initial cost is significantly more than gasoline vehicles Electrical transmission and distribution reduces overall efficiency – and energy source is a concern High battery cost: Large battery packs are expensive and battery life is a concern for customers Driving range: Range limitations of 100-200 miles per charge depending on battery type and size and driving conditions Recharge time: Fully recharging the battery pack can take 8 to 10 hours

• • • • • • •

No tailpipe emissions (its doesn’t have a tailpipe!) Operating cost is less than conventional vehicles Batteries can be recharged Recaptures braking energy through regenerative braking Reduces toxic materials sent to landfills Cost pennies to charge vs. dollars at the gas pump Offers a quiet, smooth, and high-performance driving experience Faster acceleration Eligible for purchase incentives

Mitsubishi MiEV

Nissan Leaf


Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology
• Uses a completely different propulsion system than conventional vehicles The fuel cell stack combines the Hydrogen gas stored onboard with oxygen from the air to produce electricity that drives the electric motor Batteries are also used to store regenerated energy from braking Needs refueling infrastructure
Honda FCX Clarity

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Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology

• • • • • •

Energy efficient – up to 3 times more energy efficient than gas engines Quick recharging capabilities Driving range comparable to conventional vehicles Produces no harmful exhaust emissions Combustion leads to byproducts – Water vapor – that does not damage the environment Qualifies for alternative fuel vehicle tax credit Simplicity of design, with no moving parts, offers the benefits of quiet operation and reliability Hydrogen can be produced a number of ways domestically, relieving the stress of overseas petrochemical dependence

Honda FCX Clarity


Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology
• • • • Emission byproducts are environmental friendly (water vapor) Range comparable to conventional vehicles Qualifies for alternative fuel vehicle tax credit Generates electrical power quietly and efficiently, without pollution

• • • • • Component pieces of a fuel cell are costly Durability issues Fuel cell ability to operate in extreme temperatures and humidity a concern Need to develop refueling infrastructure Safety concerns with hydrogen tank onboard


Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine
• • • An alternative fuel vehicle that uses hydrogen fuel for motive power An internal combustion engine is modified to use Hydrogen as fuel Sometimes considered as an interim technology that will bridge the gap between today's gasoline-powered internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles and fuel cell vehicles Vehicle uses a tank to store hydrogen that needs to be refueled externally

Ford Model U Hydrogen ICE Concept

Ford Hydrogen Powered Shuttle Bus


Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine

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• • •

Requires a slight modification of conventional engine Range comparable to conventional vehicles Generates electrical power quietly and efficiently, without pollution Extremely low tailpipe emissions

Driving range is not comparable to a conventional vehicle Hydrogen tanks require more space than gasoline tanks Need to develop refueling infrastructure Safety concerns with hydrogen tank onboard


Techniques to Reduce Emissions

Fuel economy improvement techniques

Source: PWC report on Climate change


Advanced Internal Combustion Engines
• • Improvements in energy efficiency and emissions reduction continue Because of their relatively low cost, high performance, and ability to use renewable fuels (e.g. ethanol and biodiesel) conventional vehicles with combustion engines will dominate Through the commercialization of advanced engines, the US can cut its transportation fuel use by 20-40%, resulting in greater economic, environmental and energy security


Five Fuel Saving Technologies
1. Clean Diesel Diesel engines are 25-35% more efficient than conventional (spark ignited) gasoline engines. Despite their far superior fuel economy, diesel cars have never been a popular choice in the U.S. That’s because the first time diesel cars came to our shores in any real numbers, they rightfully earned a reputation as loud, stinky, slow machines. Since then, diesel technology has progressed greatly. Mercedes-Benz E320 BlueTec 3.0-liter turbocharged V-6 diesel engine The latest diesel catalysts successfully reduce NOx levels, making new diesels some of the cleanest cars on the road. A second device, known as a particulate trap, takes care of the airborne dust.

Five Fuel Saving technologies
2. Direct Injection It differs from standard fuel injection, a.k.a. port injection, by injecting fuel directly into each of the already airfilled cylinders. Direct injection improves fuel efficiency and will generally yield more power when compared with a port-injected engine of similar displacement and design. Fuel efficiency is improved because the system can more precisely regulate how much fuel is needed at any given time and can account for the minute differences among the individual cylinders.

Ford EcoBoost direct-injection system


Five Fuel Saving Technologies
3. Variable Displacement/Cylinder Deactivation An engine capable of variable displacement changes the number of cylinders it runs on, in turn changing the effective displacement. Fuel flow to the inactive cylinders is cut, and the valves are deactivated. With fewer cylinders to fill, fuel economy improves. Engines with variable displacement include Chrysler’s Hemi V-8s, GM’s V6s and V-8s, and Honda’s 3.5-liter V-6

2008 Honda Accord 3.5-liter VTEC V-6 engine


Five Fuel Saving Technologies
4. Turbochargers Turbochargers do not directly increase the efficiency of an engine. What they offer is big peak power from a small engine. Turbochargers use twin fans – the exhaust turbine and the compressor turbine – to increase the pressure of the air coming into the engine. Increased General Motors Ecotec 2.0-liter turbocharged inline-4 pressure produces increased engine turbocharger power. Turbocharged engines typically make more than 100 horsepower per liter of engine displacement, a feat that naturally aspirated engines (without turbo- or superchargers) struggle to achieve. The advantage is similar to that of variable displacement—the option for power is there, but when it is not needed, the engine is fairly efficient.

Five Fuel Saving Technologies
5. Variable Valve Timing and Lift Variable Valve Timing and Lift controls the timing, duration and the height of the opening and closing valves used to let air and fuel into an engine and exhaust fumes out. This provides better regulation and control of an engines fuel efficiency and power. Certain valve timing produces better fuel efficiency, and different timing produces more power. An engine equipped Variable Valve Timing mechanism cutaway with variable valve timing can operate at an efficient level while at low rpm and really turn the power up when needed. Like a turbocharger, this technology does not directly save gas but rather adds power to engines that are already efficient.

Fuel Economy Improvements
• In addition to choosing fuel-efficient vehicles, there are other strategies drivers and fleets can employ to improve fuel economy. Some of these strategies include: – Installing low rolling resistance tires to improve the fuel economy of light-duty vehicles – Tracking your fleet's fuel consumption through automated vehicle data collection devices that track fuel economy, maintenance schedules, and fleet performance – Web-based monitoring tools that control, track, and manage fuel and vehicle maintenance costs based on fleet card transactions – Synthetic oils designed to improve fuel economy in light-duty vehicles


Idle Reduction
• • • Idling vehicles use up to several billion gallons of fuel and emit large quantities of air pollution and greenhouse gases each year Reducing idle time saves fuel, engine wear, and money while reducing emissions and noise Idle reduction is typically used to describe technologies and practices that reduce the amount of time heavy duty trucks idle their engines. However, light- and medium-duty vehicles can benefit from idle reduction strategies as well A variety of technologies are employed to reduce this fuel use
– Onboard equipment such as automatic engine stopstart controls and auxiliary power units can be used wherever the vehicle might be – Truck stop electrification enables trucks to hook up to stations that provide power and other amenities
Truck Stop Electrification


Other Technologies
Merging of Alternative Fuel Technologies • Development of natural gas-powered hybrid-drive trucks and buses
Hybrid drive systems – both electric- and hydraulicpowered, appear to have promise in the heavy-duty sector. Applications include buses, trash trucks and other vocational work trucks

H/CNG engine development work

Hydrogen blending with CNG shows promise as an emissions reduction strategy. We may see H/CNG carve out a more significant role in the future.

Prius Natural Gas Hybrid

New applications for existing technologies
• Electric and Hybrid drives are being developed for other applications – e.g. Fork Lifts

Supporting technology development • New storage materials for CNG (low pressure)

There are a variety of different techniques being investigated to store CNG at lower pressures in molecular capture technologies (non-cylinder type storage mediums)

Hybrid Lift Truck




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