CENTRIFUGAL

PUMPS

PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS
 CAPACITY  HEAD  POWER  NPSH

CAPACITY
• Capacity depends on various factors like Process liquid characteristics i.e density,viscosity. Size of pump and its inlet and outlet sections. Size and shape of cavities between the vanes. Pump suction and discharge temperature and pressure conditions. Velocity of flow in suction pipe.

HEAD
It is the measurement of the height of a liquid column. Various head terms used are: Static suction head. Static discharge head. Friction head. Pressure head. Total suction head. Total discharge head. Total differential head.

STATIC SUCTION HEAD
Head resulting from elevation of liquid relative to the pump centerline. If the liquid level is above pump centerline,then the static suction head is positive. If the liquid level is below pump centerline then the suction head is negative and this condition is commonly denoted as a “suction lift” condition

STATIC SUCTION HEAD AND STATIC DISCHARGE HEAD

COMMON SUCTION SUPPLY CONDITIONS ARE :
CASE I: Suction from source under pressure other than atm, and located above pump centerline. CASE II: Suction from source under pressure,and located below pump centerline.

CASE I :
This involves a suction supply under a press other than atm,and located above the pump centerline. Includes all components of the suction head.

CASE II :
Suction from source under atm pressure, and located below pump centerline. Used in cases where the tank is underground or suction from large reservoirs

FRICTION HEAD (HF)
It is the head required to overcome the resistance to flow in the pipe and fittings. It is dependent upon the size, condition and type of the pipe, number and type of pipe fitting, flowrate, and nature of liquid. hf = 4fLu2 2Dg

PRESSURE HEAD (HP)
Pressure head must be considered when a pumping system either begins or terminates in a tank which is under some pressure other than atmosphere.
Pressure head refers to absolute press on the surface of the liquid reservoir supplying the pump suction. If the system is open,hp equals atm pressure head.

TOTAL SUCTION HEAD Hs = hps + hs – hfs
TOTAL DISCHARGE HEAD

Hd = hpd+ hd + hfd hps hs hfs hpd hd = Suction tank pressure head = Static suction head = Friction head = discharge tank pressure head = Static discharge head

NPSH
NPSHr determines the required suction head (maximum suction lift). NPSHa is determined by the pipe system on the suction (inlet) side of the pump. You must configure your system so NPSHa ≥> NPSHr. Failure to meet this requirement will cause reduced flow rate, cavitation, and vibration of the pump.

NPSHa = Ha + Hs - Hv - Hf Ha = pressure on the liquid surface in the supply tank Hs = suction head (+) or suction lift (-) Hv = vapor pressure Hf = friction loss in the suction piping

INCREASING AVAILABLE NPSH
Raise the liquid level. Lower the pump. Reduce the friction losses in the suction piping. Use a booster pump. Sub cool the liquid.

REDUCING REQUIRED NPSH
Slower speeds. A double suction impeller. Inducer. Several smaller pumps in parallel.

CAVITATION
Cavitation is a general term used to describe the behavior of bubbles in a liquid. Two classes of Cavitation:

Inertial (or transient) cavitation: Bubble in a liquid rapidly collapses, producing a shock wave
Non-inertial cavitation: Bubble in a fluid is forced to oscillate due to some form of energy input.

SUCTION CAVITATION
It occurs when the pump suction is under a low pressure/high vacuum condition This vapor is carried over to the discharge side of the pump and is compressed back into a liquid by the discharge pressure. This imploding action occurs violently and attacks the face of the impeller.

DISCHARGE CAVITATION
Discharge cavitation occurs when the pump discharge pressure is extremely high. The high discharge pressure causes the majority of the fluid to circulate inside the pump instead of being allowed to flow out the discharge. Discharge cavitation is believed to be the cause of cracking of joints.

CAVITATION AND RESULTING CORROSION

THANK YOU FOR PUMPING IN YOUR VALUABLE TIME