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5. Sample Design Sampling Fundamentals
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Terms in Sampling

Population/Universe

In research methodology population means the characteristics of a specific group. A population can be finite or infinite. Representation or a list of all the elements of target population from which the sample is to be drawn.
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Sampling frame/Source list

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Sampling frame/Source list

The techniques used in drawing a sample.

Eg: Probability/Non-probability sampling

Element/Unit

The object about which or from which the information is to be collected. It could be institution. an individual
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or

an

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Statistic and Parameter

The characteristic of a sample is called as a statistic

Eg: Mean, Standard deviation (SD)

The characteristic of a population is called as parameter.

Eg: Population mean (µ), population standard deviation (σ)

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Sampling distribution

Relative frequency distribution of an infinity of determinations of the value of a statistic. Eg: Sampling distribution of mean is the probability distribution of all possible means of random samples of some size taken from the same population.

Size of each and the procedure adopted for selecting the sample is the same.
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Precision

The range within which the population parameter is expected to lie in accordance with the reliability specified in the confidence level as a percentage of the estimate. It is measured by the standard error of estimate.

The standard error of any statistic is the standard deviation of its sampling 6/22/12 77 distribution.

Confidence level

The likelihood of the sample statistic value falling within the precision range.

Eg: If the confidence level is 99% it means that out of 100 there are 99 chances that the 6/22/12 sample will give

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Significance level

The chances of answers falling out of precision range. Eg: If confidence level is 99% then the significance level will be (100-99) i.e. 1%. There are 1 out of 100 chances of the answer falling outside the precision range.

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Characteristics of a good sample design

Result in sample.

a

truly

representative

• •

Results in a small sampling error. Viable in the context of funds available for the research study. Biasing can be controlled in a better way. Results of the sample study can be applied, in general, for the1010 universe 6/22/12

Types of sampling errors

Total error = Sampling Error + Non Sampling Error 6/22/12 1111

Sampling Errors

The errors which are due to sampling and of which average magnitude can be determined. Depends on nature of techniques of sampling. Biased

universe,

the

Faulty process of selection Faulty collection of data Faulty analysis
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Unbiased
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Methods of Reducing Sampling Errors
• • •

Intensive study of sampling methods Greater investment in enumeration Pretesting of sampling interviewing techniques Proper training to field workers and

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Non- sampling errors

Error in scale, instrument, data collection, editing, coding or tabulating. Two types:

Response error
• • •

Researcher error Interviewer error Respondent error
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- Non- Response error

Theoretical basis of sampling

Based on two laws:

Law of Statistical Regularity Law of Inertia of Large Numbers

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Law of Statistical Regularity

It is based probability.

on

the

theory

of

"The law of statistical regularity lays down that a group of objects chosen at random from a particular group tends to possess characteristics of that group (universe)". It is not necessary that the average marks of the sample are exactly 6/22/12 1616 similar to population mean marks.

Law of Inertia of Large Numbers

It states that larger the size of sample, the more accurate the results will be. The variation in the component parts balance each other and hence the differences in the aggregate value would be significant.

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Principle of persistence of small numbers

If some of the units in a population possess markedly distinct characteristics, then it will be reflected in the sample values also. For example, if there are 300 blind persons in a population of 10,000 persons, then a sample of hundred will have more or less same proportion of blind persons in it.
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Principle of validity

A sampling design is said to be valid if it enables us to obtain tests and estimation about population parameters.

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Principle of optimisation

This principle aims at obtaining a desired level of efficiency at minimum cost or obtaining maximum possible efficiency with given level of cost.

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Statistics and Parameter
Statistics come from Samples, Parameters come from Populations

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Sampling distribution

A sampling distribution is a probability distribution of a sample statistic based on all possible simple random samples of the same size from the population, such as the sample mean or sample proportion. We want to know:
the shape of the distribution, such as z, t or 6/22/12 several others we will meet; 2222

Sampling distribution of mean

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The sampling distribution of a mean is the distribution of values taken by the mean in all possible samples of the same size from the same population. If the random samples come from a normal population, the sampling distribution of the mean is normal regardless of the size of the sample.
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Example

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Central Limit Theorem (CLT)

For sufficiently large samples (by rule of − thumb, n > 30), the sampling distribution X σ2 of is approximately normal with mean n µ and variance regardless of the shape of the population distribution The approximation to a normal distribution is increasingly close, the larger is the sample size.
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For infinite population:

For finite population
µ= , σ µ x x
Z s oe cr =

W wt e re i

σ
n

N − n , N − 1 x − µ σ N− n N − 1 n

ad n

te h

x − x µ= i Z = s

σ x

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The Sampling Distribution of the sample proportion

The sample proportion is the proportion of objects in a sample that display some particular characteristic of Binomial distribution. As the sample size becomes larger and larger, a BD starts assuming the characteristics of a ND.

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If p represents the proportion of defectives i.e., of successes and q the proportion of nondefectives i.e., of failures (or q = 1 – p) If p is treated as a random variable then the sampling distribution of proportion of successes has: sampling distributi on of proportion of suceess has mean = p The
Standard deviation =

pq n For large n, the normal variate of the sampling distributi on of proportion ,
∧ p− p z= , where p − sample proportion of success pq n

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Sample size determination

Two ways:

Subjective approach sample size

to

determine

Mathematical approach to determine sample size

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Subjective approach

The nature of population homogeneity or heterogeneity Nature of Respondent

-

Accessible and co-operative – small sample Non-response and uncooperative- large sample One time study- large sample

Nature of Study

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Sampling technique

Non- probability- large sample Probability – small sample More categories - large sample Small category – small sample Enough fund and time -large sample Less fund and time – small sample
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Complexity of tabulation
– –

Availability of resources
– –

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Mathematical approach to determine sample size (Based on precision rate and confidence level)

For instance, a researcher may like to estimate the mean of the universe within ± 3 of the true mean with 95 per cent confidence. In this case we will say that the desired precision is ±3, i.e., if the sample mean is Rs 100, the true value of the mean will be no less than Rs 97 and no more than Rs 103. 6/22/12 4848

1. Sample size determination for means

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2. Sample size determination for proportions

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Summarize

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Sampling Designs
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Characteristics of a good sample

Representativeness

Possess the population

characteristics

of

the

Adequacy

Sample size should be adequate enough Free from all bias and prejudices Smaller the std error,
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Unbiasedness

High precision
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the

Sampling design process
Sampling frame is the source material from which the sample is drawn. If you have a 'list' of names of all individuals from which you could draw a sample, the list is a sampling frame.  •A sampling unit is the sample being chosen.

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Sampling methods

Sampling methodologies are classified under two general categories:

Probability sampling

The researcher knows the exact possibility of selecting each member of the population

Non-probability sampling

The chance of being included in the sample is not known
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Comparison
• • • • Non-probability Probability

Chance of selection is not Equal chance of selection known Nothing definite can of population More representative be said about the representativeness characteristics Sampling frame is used not developed Non-parametric are are preferred Parametric teststestsmostly used.

• •

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Probability
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Simple random sampling

Each element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected. Can be done ‘with replacement’ and ‘without replacement’ Sample selected by
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Advantages

It requires a minimum knowledge of population. It is free from subjectivity and free from personal error. It provides appropriate data for our purpose. The observations of the sample can be used for inferential purpose. The representativeness of a sample cannot be ensured by this method.
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Disadvantages

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Systematic sampling

Systematic sampling is an improvement over the simple random sampling. This method requires the complete information about the population. There should be a list of information of all the individuals of the population in any systematic way. Population size N, desired sample size n, sampling interval k=N/n. Randomly select a number j between 1 and k, sample element j and then every kth element thereafter, j+k, j+2k, etc.

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Advantages

This is a simple method of selecting a sample. It reduces the field cost. Sample may be comprehensive and representative of population. Observations of the sample may be used for drawing conclusions and generalizations.

Disadvantages
This is not free from error, since there is 6/22/12 6363 subjectivity due to different ways of

Stratified sampling

The researcher divides his population in strata on the basis of some characteristics and from each of these smaller homogeneous groups (strata) 6/22/12 draws at random

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Proportionate

In this the number of units selected from each stratum is proportionate to the share of stratum in the population This method is most suitable when the purpose of sampling is to estimate the population value of some characteristic and there is no difference in withinstratum variances.

If Pi represents the proportion of population included in stratum i, and n represents the total sample6565 size, the 6/22/12

Disproportionate

When the purpose of study is to compare the differences among strata then it become necessary to draw equal units from all strata irrespective of their share in population. The allocation in such a situation results in the following formula for determining the sample sizes different strata:

This is called “Optimum disproportionate sampling

allocation”

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Advantages

It is a good population.

representative

of

the

It is an improvement over the earlier. It is an objective method of sampling. Observations can be used for inferential purpose.

Disadvantages
Serious disadvantage of this method is that it is difficult for the researcher to 6/22/12 6767 decide the relevant criterion for

Cluster sampling

Group elements are heterogeneous in nature. In stratified sampling, intra group homogeneity and inter group heterogeneity 6/22/12

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Advantages

It may be a good representative of the population. It is an easy method. It is an economical method. It is practicable and highly applicable in education. Observations can be used for inferential purpose.
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Multistage sampling

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This sample is more comprehensive and representative of the population. The Individuals are selected from different stages for constituting the multi-stage sampling. Stages of a population are usually available within a group or population, whenever stratification is done by the researcher.
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Advantages

It is a good population.

representative

of

the

Multi-stage sampling is an improvement over the earlier methods. It is an objective procedure of sampling. The observations from multi-stage sample may be used for inferential purpose. It is a difficult and complex 7373 method of

Disadvantages
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Non-probability
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Convenience/Accidental sampling

Convenience sampling is sampling which involves the sample being drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand. Convenience sampling often leads to a biased study since it consists of only available people. Eg: Students in your class, Man on the street interview
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Advantages

It is very easy method of sampling. It is frequently used in behavioural sciences. It reduces the time, money and energy i.e. it is an economical method. It is not a population. representative of the

Disadvantages

It is not free from error. Parametric statistics cannot be used.
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Judgement sampling

The selection of a group by intuition on the basis of criterion deemed to be self-evident.

Virtue of their position Knowledge

Generally investigator should take the judgement sample so this sampling is highly risky.
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Advantages

Knowledge of the investigator can be best used in this technique of sampling. This technique economical. of sampling is also

Disadvantages

This technique is objective. It is not free from error. It includes uncontrolled variation
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Quota sampling

A quota is fixed for each group and sample units are drawn from the group. The process whereby a researcher gathers data from individuals possessing identified characteristics and quotas. Similar to stratified sampling except for the fact that no sampling frame is 6/22/12 used and sample units are 7979 drawn on

Advantages

It is an improvement judgement sampling.

over

the

It is an easy sampling technique. It is most frequently used in social surveys. It is not a representative sample. It is not free from error. It has the influence of regional geographical and social factors.
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Disadvantages
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Snow ball sampling

This is a method of sampling in which existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances. Hence the recruits grow in snowball fashion. The technique is often used with hidden populations of people, such as drug users, who are otherwise difficult for researchers to access. 
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End of 1 & 2 Module
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Remaining topics in 1 & 2 Module….
• •

ANOVA (F-test) ANOVA in Latin Square

( will be discussed in 4th module)

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Review questions

Define research. What are the possible motivations for conducting research? What is the importance of research methodology in social science? Critically enumerate the status of research activities in India. Write a short note on Management problem vs Research problem
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…contd

What is Factorial research design? How are factorial designs are superior to other statistical experimental designs? What are the potential sources of bias in a sample survey? How can be researcher reduce sampling errors? Law of inertia of large numbers is a corollary of Law of statistical 6/22/12 8585 regularity. Explain.

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